Practice Test: Language Arts and History/Social Science (178)

Suggested Testing Time: 4 hours

To Take This Practice Test


Read the excerpts below from Old Rough the Miser: A Fable for Children (1891), a book by Lily Wesselhoeft, and Aesop's Fables: Accompanied by Many Hundred Proverbs and Moral Maxims, suited to the Subject of Each Fable (1822), a book by C. Bentham; then answer the questions that follow.

Once upon a time there lived on a large farm a crow, a water-rat, an owl, a frog, and a weasel. Large as the farm was, with its meadows, its fields, and many acres of woodland, it would seem as if these little animals might have lived in harmony, without encroaching on one another's domains. Such was not the case, however; and indeed it is a well-known fact that the more one has the more one wants, and that there are some who wish to possess the earth.

––– Old Rough the Miser: A Fable for Children by Lily Wesselhoeft

A dog crossing a little rivulet, with a piece of flesh in his mouth, saw his own shadow represented in the clear mirror of the limpid stream; and believing it to be another Dog, who was carrying another piece of flesh, he could not forbear catching at it; but was so far from getting anything by his greedy design, that he dropt the piece he had in his mouth, which immediately sunk to the bottom, and was irrecoverably lost. He that aims at too much, often loses all.

––– Aesop's Fables: Accompanied by Many Hundred Proverbs and Moral Maxims, suited to the Subject of Each Fable by C. Bentham

Question 1.

Which of the following statements accurately compares the theme between the two excerpts?

  1. "One can never accumulate enough."
  2. "Gluttony destroys humanity and animals alike."
  3. "Actions are always motivated by envy and hate."
  4. "It is important to share what one has with others."

Question 2.

Which of the following considerations is most important for a third-grade teacher to make before including these two fables in a language arts lesson?

  1. The fables were written during a different time period and will require preteaching of specific terms.
  2. The fables focus on similar perspectives and should be used for comparison purposes only.
  3. The fables come from diverse cultures and accurately represent their respective norms.
  4. The fables were selected by the teacher and include high-interest topics the students enjoy.

Question 3.

An author writing a short story about the negative impacts of stressful life events on an individual's personality would most likely utilize a protagonist exhibiting which of the following lists of characteristics?

  1. unreliable, quiet, upbeat
  2. optimistic, playful, witty
  3. pessimistic, abrupt, unpleasant
  4. committed, dishonest, creative

Question 4.

An upper elementary teacher is working with students to analyze and critique television, magazine, and radio advertisements for a popular cereal brand. Which of the following approaches would best promote students' ability to effectively evaluate the content of the advertisements?

  1. completing a graphic organizer comparing and contrasting the content and terms used in the advertisements
  2. keeping track of the frequency of certain colors and images used within the advertisements
  3. creating a new advertisement that mirrors the techniques used by the original content creators
  4. identifying aspects of the advertisements that are commonly used for other commercial products

Question 5.

Read the excerpt below from The Country We Love My Family Divided (2016), a memoir by Diana Guerrero1; then answer the question that follows.

She wanted my brother to have a better life, one that wasn't possible on a plant worker's pay. Years earlier, my mother's older sister, Milly, had moved with her husband from Colombia to Passaic, New Jersey. They'd been granted permanent residence. Mami, who'd visited my aunt numerous times with my brother in tow, saw an abundance of opportunities there, a place far from her crippling losses. "We should go stay with my sister and get on our feet," Mami told my father. Papi, known for his caution, wasn't persuaded. But even with working from dawn to nightfall, he made less than  200 dollars  a month. Not only were he and my mother emotionally traumatized by the sorrows of their early lives; they were also financially desperate. So in 1981, with all their belongings stuffed into two suitcases, they arrived in Passaic, on a four-year visitor visa—the type of visa that was easiest for them to attain because they were invited and hosted by family members who were here legally. My dad had his doubts about making the trip. My mother planned never to look back.

Which of the following text structures does Guerrero use in the excerpt?

  1. cause and effect
  2. comparison and contrast
  3. problem and solution
  4. chronological

Question 6.

Read the excerpt below from Minerals of California: centennial volume 1866–1966 (1966), an informational text by Joseph Murdoch and Robert Webb; then answer the question that follows.

The history of gold in California far antedates James Marshall's famous discovery in 1848, although the early accounts are often vague or uncertain. In Hakluyt's Voyages, Drake in 1579 is said to mention the probability of gold here: "There is no part of the earth here to be taken up wherein there is not some special likelihood of gold or silver."

The accounts of the discovery of gold at Coloma by James Marshall, are, as is usually the case, conflicting in detail, even those purporting to be eye-witness reports. They are all in general agreement that the discovery was made by Marshall in the mill-race at Coloma in January or February 1848.

Which of the following phrases, when entered into a search engine, would most likely produce content closely aligned to the excerpt above?

  1. gold discovery
  2. mill-race
  3. Coloma
  4. James Marshall

Question 7.

Read the excerpt below from Shores of the Polar Sea (1878), an informational text by Edward Moss; then answer the question that follows.

The Tropic Zones are no better defined, and one can sail into or out of them without experiencing a single impressive sensation. But the Arctic Circle has obvious boundaries. A conspicuous change in the ordinary habits of nature warns the traveller that he is leaving the hospitable realms of earth behind him, and entering a region full of new experiences. Here familiar light and darkness cease to alternate, morning and evening no longer make the day, and in proportion as the latitude increases, day and night become mere figures of speech.

Which of the following statements best summarizes Moss' point of view in the excerpt?

  1. The Tropic Zones contain difficult terrain to traverse.
  2. It is impossible for humans to survive in the Arctic Circle.
  3. Sailing is the simplest way to move in and out of the Tropic Zones.
  4. The Arctic Circle is distinctly different from other regions of the world.

Question 8.

Read the excerpt below from The Woman and the Car (1909), an informational text by Dorothy Levitt; then answer the question that follows.

1In buying your car you will probably find that the last car you were on is "the best." 2It is liable to become somewhat confusing if you go for many trial runs; but one thing to bear in mind is that the car that will do five miles an hour faster than the one you previously tried is not necessarily the best car—it may be faster while it is running, but it may not run for long—therefore take my advice and pin your faith on the car with the reputation for reliability, the one that will not entail a big expenditure every few months for repairs. 3Nearly all of us, nowadays, have some motoring friends, who have probably had experience with different makes of cars: their experience should benefit you in your choice. 4There are some very inexpensive cars on the market, but inexpensive only as to initial outlay—they are likely to prove themselves sorry bargains before many months have passed. 5One of the chief joys of motoring is to feel that you can rely upon your car.

Which sentence contains irrelevant information pertaining to Levitt's argument that "It is best to purchase a car recognized for dependability" in the excerpt?

  1. Sentence 1
  2. Sentence 2
  3. Sentence 3
  4. Sentence 4

Question 9.

Read the excerpt below from Flora of the Colosseum of Rome; or, Illustrations and Descriptions of Four Hundred and Twenty Plants Growing Spontaneously Upon The Ruins of The Colosseum of Rome (1855), an informational text by Richard Deakin; then answer the question that follows.

All the species of this genus abound in mucilage; and are much used in Italy (especially the M. rotundifolia), when boiled and mashed up into a pulp, as a poultice: it is often mixed with bread-crumb or linseed-meal, and applied to wounds, ulcers, cuts, etc.

Which of the following phrases accurately defines poultice as it is used in the excerpt?

  1. a substance applied for temperature regulation
  2. an herb commonly found in household cooking
  3. a concoction used to relieve pain from injuries
  4. an abscess accompanied by inflammation

Question 10.

Which of the following sentences would be most appropriate to use as a concluding statement for an essay about the benefits of composting?

  1. Before heading to the trash can, consider the advantages of composting.
  2. In other words, composting is one of the best ways to help the environment and reduce waste in landfills.
  3. Even though decaying food may produce a foul odor, it creates a nutrient rich soil that can be used for gardening.
  4. Additionally, composting reduces the amount of waste in your local community.

Question 11.

Read the dialogue below; then answer the question that follows.

Person A: It was the proudest moment of my life. I can't believe you weren't there.

Person B: I said I was sorry. What more do you want from me?

Person A: I want you to take some responsibility for your actions for once.

Person B: What are you talking about? You're acting like a child.

Person A: I don't know why I even bothered trying to have a conversation with you.

The author of this narrative play most likely developed the dialogue above to:

  1. introduce a narrator.
  2. describe an event.
  3. support an antagonist.
  4. establish a conflict.

Question 12.

Read the paragraph below from a student's research paper; then answer the question that follows.

Dolphins are mammals that live in the ocean. They are actually closely related to whales. "Dolphins come from the scientific family called Delphinidae, which consist of 36 species." Dolphins come in many colors, even pink and black. They breath using a hole on top of their heads called a blowhole. They can swim very fast and like to travel in groups.

Which of the following research techniques would be most beneficial for the student to receive additional support?

  1. locating relevant information from various sources
  2. evaluating sources for reliability and bias
  3. citing sources accurately and responsibly
  4. developing an effective research question

Question 13.

Which of the following sentences contains the correct usage of an adverb?

  1. They went to the grocery store and briefly they went home.
  2. The librarian asked us to quietly read our books at the table.
  3. I am not quickly sure whether I should be content or distraught.
  4. An arrogantly red parrot flew out of the enclosure and onto my shoulder.

Question 14.

Which of the following sentences contains the correct usage of a colon?

  1. There were three different types of fruit: apples, pears, and grapes.
  2. After returning from my journey I: unpacked, took a shower, and made dinner.
  3. An important piece of advice is to: never let them see you sweat.
  4. The weather is often severe here: and causes frequent power outages.

Question 15.

Read the information below; then answer the question that follows.

A sixth-grade teacher asks students to post their recent free writes on a private classroom blog. Students are then asked to comment on at least two other students' writing. One of the comments is below.

"Thank you for sharing your writing with me. I could imagine myself at the park with you and your family riding the rollercoaster. I think you might've chosen the wrong  their (spelled t h e i r)  in the second sentence though. I think you meant to use  they’re (spelled t h e y apostrophe r e) ."

Based on the comment above, this student is effectively using technology to:

  1. collaborate.
  2. revise and edit.
  3. brainstorm and plan.
  4. rewrite.

Question 16.

Which of the following sentences would be most effective to support a written analysis about the negative impacts of coastal erosion?

  1. Coastal erosion is the loss of sediment due to the constant weathering conditions present by the coastline.
  2. Beaches are landforms that often experience dramatic changes because of both natural and man-made forces.
  3. It is unknown whether the shifts seen by shorelines are temporary or permanent since seasonal cycles fluctuate.
  4. As a result of coastal erosion, inland populations have drastically increased, placing a burden on local resources.

Question 17.

Students are drafting speeches for a classroom debate next week about school uniforms. Which of the following teacher directions would best promote students' ability to compose an effective argument?

  1. "Be sure to choose one side of the issue, either for or against, then develop your argument from there."
  2. "An ample amount of evidence is needed when representing both sides of an argument."
  3. "Ensure that your closing statement reiterates the critical details you discussed throughout the argument."
  4. "Including your opinion in your argument will help to strengthen your claim and engage the audience."

Question 18.

During a college lecture on the use of wind turbines on Cape Cod, a student raises their hand to ask a question. Which of the following questions would be the most appropriate for a student to ask based on the context?

  1. "Should I get a job in environmental science?"
  2. "Why is it so hard to predict extreme weather events like tornadoes?"
  3. "What are some things that could be done to reverse the effects of carbon emissions?"
  4. "Is there a way we could build one for our school?"

Question 19.

A citizen is presenting an argument about the mismanagement of municipal funds by projecting lists of numerical data. Which of the following techniques would promote the listener's ability to understand the presenter's line of reasoning?

  1. integrating frequent pauses
  2. making emotive facial features
  3. changing voice tone and volume
  4. utilizing images like graphs and charts

Question 20.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

During a fourth-grade social studies unit on early European exploration, a teacher reads the following information from a nonfiction text aloud.

Norsemen, also known as Vikings, were Scandinavian seafaring warriors. The name Viking comes from the early Scandinavian word " vikingr, spelled v i k i n g r " meaning pirate. Vikings raided and colonized vast stretches of European land throughout the 9th to 11th centuries. Large bands, or armies, would navigate the seas in their longships and launch hit-and-run attacks on cities and towns along the European coastline. They mostly sought fortunes and furs during their raids to use in trade with the European kingdoms.

Which of the following student responses most accurately summarizes the given information?

  1. "Norsemen were also called Vikings. Norsemen were warriors who fought on the sea to collect money they would use while trading across Europe."
  2. "Vikings were Scandinavian pirates that attacked European kingdoms for a long time. They would take trips in their longships across the ocean in search of treasure."
  3. "Most of Europe was under attack from pirates during the 9th and 11th centuries. The pirates would steal land, money, and fur. They had large boats called longships."
  4. "Vikings were sea warriors that would attack European cities during the 9th to 11th centuries. They used longships and would steal money and furs to use for trade."

Question 21.

Which of the following scenarios best illustrates the economic concept of scarcity?

  1. cutbacks in oil production that result in suppliers' inability to meet demand
  2. improvements in technology that render most previous methods obsolete
  3. overproduction of agricultural goods that leads to a dramatic drop in prices
  4. rising employment that contributes to a lack of confidence among investors

Question 22.

Consumers typically choose to boycott the goods or services of a particular company in order to:

  1. express their preference for the products of a rival company.
  2. effect changes in the company's employment or manufacturing policies.
  3. take advantage of lower prices at a different company.
  4. influence the company into developing new products.

Question 23.

Which of the following factors would most likely contribute to the forced migration of people from their homeland?

  1. widespread unemployment caused by an economic crisis
  2. urban sprawl expanding into formerly agricultural regions
  3. foreign investment that generates rapid industrialization
  4. state-sponsored policies of ethnic or religious persecution

Question 24.

Buddhism spread throughout southeast Asia in the ninth century  C E . This is an example of which of the following ways complex societies interact and spread ideas from one region to another?

  1. mass migration
  2. trade
  3. colonization
  4. military conquest

Question 25.

Which of the following statements best describes an important geographic feature of a major region of Massachusetts?

  1. Central Massachusetts receives more rainfall each year than any other region of the state.
  2. The rolling plains of the Berkshires are fed by numerous streams.
  3. The wooded hills of southeastern Massachusetts tower over the surrounding landscape.
  4. The Connecticut River Valley has some of the most fertile land in the state.

Question 26.

Which of the following describes a major function of the prime meridian?

  1. serving as a division line between tropical and temperate climatic zones
  2. providing a starting point for the measurement of longitude
  3. serving as a division line between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres
  4. providing a starting point for the measurement of great circles

Question 27.

Use the image2 below to answer the question that follows.

A photograph of a large tree on the shore of a body of water. In front of the tree is a wooden dock, water foul, and vegetation floating in the water near the dock. The large tree and many other trees behind it along the coast are partially submerged in water and are draped in Spanish moss.

The image most likely depicts a location in which of the following regions of the United States?

  1. Northwest
  2. Southeast
  3. Southwest
  4. Northeast

Read the excerpt below from An Historical Discourse, on the Civil and Religious Affairs of the Colony of Rhode-Island (1739), by the  R e v  John Callender; then answer the two questions that follow.

God's judgments are a great deep, but we must be wilfully blind, if we cannot see that the hand of the Lord hath wrought this.

The discovery and the conquest of America, with the amazing desolations wrought therein, appear a more remarkable event than any other in all profane history, since the universal deluge. A new world, as it was justly called, discovered to the other, or rather to Europe, and all its riches and glory overturned, and given away to another people, and the aboriginal natives, by famine, sword and pestilence, destroyed and wasted away by millions throughout all America! Who can tell how, or how long it had been inhabited, and by what a series of iniquity, it was ripe for such a fearful desolation, such an utter destruction!

Again, the settlement of New-England in particular was evidently providential, in many respects.

Moreover, as these people came not here for plunder, which drew over the Spaniards to the southward, neither did they settle themselves by force or by their own might; but God was pleased to make ready a place prepared as an asylum for them.

Question 28.

In the excerpt, Callender offers a justification for which of the following developments associated with European settlement in North America?

  1. acquiring territories in South America from Spain
  2. converting Native Peoples in the Americas to Christianity
  3. forming new governments in the Americas to support English trade
  4. removing Native Peoples from their ancestral lands in North America

Question 29.

A teacher using the excerpt in a unit of instruction on U.S. history could best provide contrast and context for Callender's views by also including which of the following perspectives?

  1. Metacomet's observations about English settlers
  2. Roger Williams's essays about religious freedom
  3. John Smith's journals from the Jamestown settlement
  4. Massasoit's treaty with leaders of the Plymouth Colony

Question 30.

A system of agriculture based on the cultivation of maize originally developed in which of the following world regions?

  1. East Asia
  2. Southeast Asia
  3. Middle East
  4. Central America

Question 31.

The large amount of Chinese painted pottery found in archaeological sites in East Africa provides evidence of the:

  1. existence of numerous Chinese settler colonies along the Swahili coast.
  2. participation of Swahili coastal societies in Indian Ocean trading networks.
  3. efforts by missionaries to spread Buddhism among the Swahili population.
  4. establishment of Swahili manufacturing facilities by Chinese merchants.

Question 32.

Read the excerpt below from Rig Veda, an ancient Indian epic preserved by the oral tradition, which describes the sacrifice of a giant known as Puruşa; then answer the question that follows.

When they divided Puruşa how many portions did they make?

What do they call his mouth, his arms? What do they call his thighs and feet?

The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rājanya made.

His thighs became the Vaiśya, from his feet the Śūdra was produced.

The excerpt best supports which of the following statements?

  1. India's caste system was fundamental to the ancient social order.
  2. Religious rituals in ancient India challenged the existing social hierarchy.
  3. Classical literature provided guidelines for establishing social equality.
  4. Polytheism in ancient India justified a complex and diverse social structure.

Question 33.

A significant difference between the early civilizations of Mesoamerica and the early civilization of ancient China and East Asia is reflected in which of the following advancements by Mesoamerican civilizations?

  1. relying on corn, beans, and squash for protein
  2. having large numbers of domesticated animals
  3. making extensive use of metal tools
  4. developing long-distance trade networks

Question 34.

The civilizations of Mycenaean Greece and Classical Greece shared which of the following characteristics?

  1. communities based around heavily fortified citadels
  2. well-developed written literary traditions of epic and lyric poetry
  3. extensive participation in Mediterranean trading networks
  4. democratic political systems based on the concept of citizenship

Question 35.

Use the image3 below to answer the question that follows.

A ground-level photograph of the front of the Great Mosque at Mali. The facade of the mosque features curved lines and a rough texture. The mosque is supported by wooden planks exposed at the ends where they stick out from the mud walls.

The Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali was originally built in the thirteenth century and is the world's largest mud brick building. The walls of the Great Mosque are reconstructed every year during a festival called the Crépissage where cracks are repaired in preparation for seasonal rains and temperature changes. Given this information, which of the following statements is most accurate about the significance of the Great Mosque to the people of Mali?

  1. The Great Mosque is an integral component of their political system.
  2. The Great Mosque is a towering example of the sustainability of their architecture.
  3. The Great Mosque represents their ingenuity when faced with environmental dilemmas.
  4. The Great Mosque represents their dedication to community and social cohesion.

Question 36.

Use the image below of Anasazi ruins,4 eleventh century  C E , in Chaco Canyon in New Mexico to answer the question that follows.

An aerial photograph of the ruins of a large ancient structure. There is no roof, and many exterior walls are also no longer in place. A large hallway divides the structure into two parts. To the left and right of the hallway there are two large circular rooms surrounded by smaller rooms.

The image best supports the assertion that the civilizations of the Native Peoples of North America:

  1. built settlements that were generally isolated from each other.
  2. were heavily influenced by other civilizations such as the Maya and Inca.
  3. collapsed due to the inability to sustain agricultural production.
  4. constructed complex societies long before the arrival of Europeans.

Read the excerpt below from an announcement placed by George Washington in The Maryland Gazette (1761), regarding several people escaping from slavery at Washington's Virginia plantation; then answer the two questions that follow.

As they went off without the least Suspicion, Provocation, or Difference with any Body, or the least angry Word or Abuse from their Overseers, tis supposed they will hardly lurk about in the Neighbourhood, but steer some direct Course (which cannot even be guessed at) in Hopes of an Escape: Or, perhaps, as the Negro Peros has lived many Years about Williamsburg, and King William County, and Jack in Middlesex, they may possibly bend their Course to one of those Places.

Whoever apprehends the said Negroes, so that the Subscriber may readily get them, shall have, if taken up in this County, Forty Shillings Reward, beside what the Law allows; and if at any greater Distance, or out of the Colony, a proportionable Recompence paid them, by

George Washington

N.B. If they should be taken separately, the Reward will be proportioned.

Question 37.

Information in the announcement best supports which of the following statements about slavery in the British colonies of North America?

  1. Enslaved people often resisted slavery through sabotage and rebellion.
  2. Enslaved people who fled their enslavers were only rarely captured.
  3. Some colonial leaders had conflicted and ambiguous views about slavery.
  4. Some colonial leaders actively enforced the continuation of slavery.

Question 38.

The excerpt best illustrates which of the following methods used by some enslaved people to escape slavery?

  1. choosing a favorable opportunity to flee despite retribution
  2. using networks of sanctuaries within the Underground Railroad
  3. engaging the assistance of antislavery activists within the South
  4. taking proactive steps for freedom under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act

Question 39.

Use the map below to answer the question that follows.

A map showing contemporary political borders of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. There are three shaded and numbered regions. Region number one covers western Massachusetts and the northwestern corner of Connecticut. Region number two covers central Massachusetts, the northeastern corner of Connecticut and the northern most part of Rhode Island. Region number three covers southeastern Massachusetts including Cape Cod and the eastern part of Rhode Island.

The numbers on the map most closely correspond with which of the following tribal territories?

    1. Mohican/Stockbridge
    2. Nipmuc
    3. Wampanoag
    1. Narragansett
    2. Abenaki/Wabanaki
    3. Massachusett
    1. Wampanoag
    2. Narragansett
    3. Mohican/Stockbridge
    1. Abenaki/Wabanaki
    2. Massachusett
    3. Nipmuc

Question 40.

New England merchants played primarily which of the following roles in the Triangular Trade?

  1. providing ports of safe haven for Spanish ships carrying mineral wealth
  2. enforcing restrictions and prohibitions on U.S. involvement in the transatlantic slave trade
  3. selling to southern colonies the lumber and other raw materials used to produce finished goods
  4. owning and profiting from the ships used to transport molasses, rum, and enslaved people

Question 41.

Read the excerpt below, a firsthand account of the Boston Tea Party that appeared in the Boston Evening Post, December 20, 1773; then answer the question that follows.

A fatal necessity has rendered this catastrophe inevitable—the landing the tea would have been fatal, as it would have saddled the colonies with a duty imposed without their consent, and which no power on earth can effect. Their strength and numbers, spirit and illumination, render the experiment dangerous, the defeat certain: The Consignees must attribute to themselves the loss of the property of the East India Company: had they seasonably quieted the minds of the people by a resignation, all had been well; the customhouse, and the man who disgraces Majesty by representing him, acting in confederacy with the inveterate enemies of America, stupidly opposed every measure concerted to return the Teas.—That Americans may defeat every attempt to enslave them, is the warmest wish of my heart. I shall return home doubly fortified in my resolution to prevent that deprecated calamity, the landing the teas in Rhode Island, and console myself with the happiest assurance that my brethren have not less virtue, less resolution, than their neighbours.

The excerpt best reflects which of the following primary grievances of the colonists against British policies?

  1. the economic burden British policies placed on colonial household budgets
  2. the unequal treatment given to residents and businesses of different colonies
  3. the enforcement of new taxes without the consent of the colonial assemblies
  4. the integration of the colonies into Britain's global economic imperial system

Question 42.

Sojourner Truth contributed to the abolitionist movement primarily in which of the following ways?

  1. delivering antislavery lectures throughout the northern states
  2. conducting raids into southern states to liberate enslaved people
  3. writing emotionally persuasive fiction promoting antislavery sentiment
  4. publishing an antislavery newspaper that argued slavery was immoral

Question 43.

The issue that dominated the  18 fifties  and contributed to the U.S. Civil War centered primarily on which of the following questions?

  1. Did the southern states have the power to nullify laws passed by Congress?
  2. Did federal laws apply to all people in America regardless of race?
  3. Did the U.S. government have the power to regulate the western expansion of slavery?
  4. Did President Lincoln have the authority to order Union ships to fire on Fort Sumter?

Question 44.

The late twentieth-century women's movement in the United States differed most from the women's movement of the nineteenth century by:

  1. championing the belief that women were capable of exercising the privileges and responsibilities of citizenship.
  2. seeking to expand the range of educational opportunities open to women.
  3. challenging the traditional assumption that women must choose between motherhood and a professional career.
  4. seeking to enlist women's organizations in the fight for expanded rights.

Read the excerpt below from The Federalist Papers:  number  78, by Alexander Hamilton; then answer the two questions that follow.

The complete independence of the courts of justice is peculiarly essential in a limited Constitution. By a limited Constitution, I understand one which contains certain specified exceptions to the legislative authority; such, for instance, as that it shall pass no bills of attainder, no ex-post-facto laws, and the like. Limitations of this kind can be preserved in practice no other way than through the medium of courts of justice, whose duty it must be to declare all acts contrary to the manifest tenor of the Constitution void. Without this, all the reservations of particular rights or privileges would amount to nothing.

Question 45.

The argument presented in the excerpt best reflects which of the following fundamental principles in the Constitution?

  1. Federalism
  2. Republicanism
  3. popular sovereignty
  4. separation of powers

Question 46.

Information presented in the excerpt is most relevant to which of the following research topics?

  1. a history of judicial review
  2. pros and cons of democracy
  3. a biography of Alexander Hamilton
  4. economic impacts of the American Revolution

Question 47.

Which of the following excerpts from the U.S. Constitution best illustrates the principle of individual rights?

  1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.
  2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.
  3. [The president] shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur.
  4. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may, from time to time ordain and establish.

Question 48.

Which of the following forms of local government is the best example of direct democracy?

  1. mayor-council
  2. council-manager
  3. open town meeting
  4. representative town meeting

Question 49.

Which of the following best describes the primary goal that major political figures of the early national period had in deciding to replace the Articles of Confederation with the U.S. Constitution?

  1. resolving growing tensions between the northern and southern states
  2. ensuring that state governments were based on the principle of popular sovereignty
  3. broadening the powers of the national government
  4. removing political obstacles to the creation of territorial governments in the West

Question 50.

Read the excerpt below from the Twenty-Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; then answer the question that follows.

The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

The ratification of the Twenty-Sixth Amendment reflects which of the following historical developments?

  1. organizing by labor unions to protect voting rights for all U.S. citizens
  2. rising public awareness of poor working conditions for child laborers in U.S. factories
  3. growing political pressure due to the implementation of the Vietnam War draft
  4. lobbying by automobile manufacturers to lower the minimum age for obtaining a driver's license

Question 51.

Read the excerpt below from the poem "America the Beautiful" (1893), by Katharine Lee Bates; then answer the question that follows.

O beautiful for spacious skies,
     For amber waves of grain,
For purple mountain majesties
     Above the fruited plain!
          America! America!
     God shed His grace on thee
And crown thy good with brotherhood
     From sea to shining sea!

The poem's lyrics can best be used to explore the role of which of the following concepts in American civic life?

  1. liberty
  2. equality
  3. patriotism
  4. constitutionalism

Question 52.

All male U.S. citizens between the ages of 18 and 25 have an exclusive legal obligation to:

  1. register with the Selective Service System.
  2. contribute to the community.
  3. establish a social security account.
  4. vote in elections.

Question 53.

Which of the following is a fundamental purpose of democratic government?

  1. providing for the common good
  2. establishing a moral code
  3. controlling the economy
  4. establishing a bureaucracy

Question 54.

A historian would most likely use which of the following sources to research the effect of the Ghanaian Empire on the rest of the African continent?

  1. oral traditions retelling the origin story of the Ghanaian Empire
  2. city financial records of gold and iron exports from within the Ghanaian Empire
  3. archaeological evidence of large camel housing stalls in Ghanaian cities
  4. a report from Spanish geographer Abu Ubayd al-Bakri on the capital city of Ghana

Question 55.

A teacher wants to show students how a historian would research the number of people who participated in the first Great Migration of African Americans (1910 to 1940). Which of the following sources would the teacher most likely use to model effective historical research skills?

  1. antique road maps
  2. federal census reports
  3. personal journal entries
  4. recent newspaper articles

Question 56.

Use the image below of "The Decemvirs framing the Twelve Tables" by Felix Gardon (c. 1915)5 to answer the question that follows.

A painting of ten white men dressed in white toga robes. Each of the men holds a stone tablet. In the right side of the foreground a man stands facing the left side of the image. He is pointing and staring off frame to something beyond the canvas. The nine other men surround the first man in a semicircle. Three men stand behind the other five men who are sitting in chairs. One chair on the far right of the painting is empty with a stone tablet underneath. Most of the men are listening intently to the first man. One of the three standing men is also looking to the left of the painting beyond the frame of the image.

The image's usefulness as a source for historians studying Roman law and the early Republic is most limited by which of the following factors?

  1. the methods and medium used by the artist to create the work
  2. the timing of the creation of the image
  3. the ambiguity about the location of the scene depicted in the work
  4. the lack of diversity in the image

Question 57.

Read the excerpt below; then answer the question that follows.

Before the Fair Housing Act of 1968 forbade racial discrimination in housing, a process of redlining kept many Black and immigrant families from accessing housing loans. This systematic discrimination has had lingering effects on families into the present day.

Nitrogen dioxide, a toxic gas produced naturally or from fuel-burning (i.e., woodstoves, car exhaust), can cause respiratory damage and possibly chronic disease in a person who is exposed to high levels of it. At least in the case of previously redlined neighborhoods in Oakland and Berkeley, the levels of nitrogen dioxide due to nearby highways and factories expose residents to far more pollutants than in other communities in California.

Which of the following sources was likely used by the author to gather data necessary for this article?

  1. bank records from 1930 to the present
  2. U.S. census data from the last century
  3. maps delineating rated housing zones
  4. municipal political affiliation demographics

Question 58.

Read the two excerpts below; then answer the question that follows.

Source 1: United States of America and 11 other signatory nations, "The Antarctic Treaty," 1961

1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable:

(a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations;

(b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations;

(c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available.

2. In implementing this Article, every encouragement shall be given to the establishment of cooperative working relations with those Specialized Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica.

Source 2: United Nations, General Assembly, "Treaty on the Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," 1966

The Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States Parties to the Treaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The establishment of military bases, installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of military maneuvers on celestial bodies shall be forbidden.

The two sources provide evidence of which of the following goals of the international community during the  19 sixties ?

  1. developing preventative measures to conduct relations without conflict
  2. lifting bans associated with nations occupying Antarctica after World War II
  3. increasing global interdependence to develop advancements in space technology
  4. establishing territorial claims over terrestrial lands and in space

Question 59.

Which of the following instructional strategies best supports honest and informed academic discussion among students during a lesson regarding the history of discrimination against Asian Americans in the United States?

  1. creating graphs showing census data for Americans of Asian descent
  2. reading a news article about visa requirements for immigrants from East Asia to America
  3. constructing a timeline of victories in civil rights legislation for Asian Americans
  4. reviewing eye-witness accounts of inequitable experiences from Asian Americans

Question 60.

Which of the following articles would provide an opportunity for students to recognize and discuss implicit bias?

  1. World War II's Effect on Germany
  2. Exploration of the Exotic Continent
  3. Nigeria and France: Culture and Food
  4. Climate Refugees and Justice Movements

Open-Response Item

The directions shown below represent what you will see on the actual test. For the purposes of this practice test, you will be able to type your written response in the box provided on the answer key.

This section of the test consists of one open-response item assignment. You will be asked to prepare a written response of approximately 150 to 300 words for the assignment. You should use your time to plan, write, review, and edit your response for your assignment.

Read the topic and directions carefully before you begin to work. Think about how you will organize your response.

As a whole, your response to the assignment must demonstrate an understanding of the knowledge of the field. In your response, you are expected to demonstrate the depth of your understanding of the subject area by applying your knowledge rather than by merely reciting factual information.

Your response to the assignment will be evaluated based on the following criteria.

  • Purpose: the extent to which the response achieves the purpose of the assignment
  • Subject Knowledge: appropriateness and accuracy in the application of subject knowledge
  • Support: quality and relevance of supporting evidence
  • Rationale: soundness of argument and degree of understanding of the subject area

The open-response item assignment is intended to assess subject knowledge. Your response must be communicated clearly enough to permit valid judgment of the evaluation criteria by scorers. Your response should be written for an audience of educators in this field. The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of edited American English. Your response should be your original work, written in your own words, and not copied or paraphrased from some other work.

Be sure to write about the assigned topic. You may not use any reference materials during the test. Remember to review your work and make any changes you think will improve your response.

Question 61.

Use the information provided in the exhibits to complete the assignment that follows.

Compare the way the two sources approach the issues separating Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. Write a response of approximately 150 to 300 words in which you:

  • determine and compare the main ideas or information presented in each source;
  • analyze and compare the purpose and point of view of each source; and
  • integrate information and cite evidence from the two sources to support your comparison.

Be sure to cite specific evidence from the sources in your response.

Exhibit: Source #1

Abraham Lincoln, debate with Senator Stephen A. Douglas, 1858

Context: The contest for U.S. Senator from Illinois between Republican Abraham Lincoln and Democrat Stephen A. Douglas featured a series of seven public debates. This excerpt is from Abraham Lincoln at the final debate in Alton, Illinois, October 15, 1858.

The real issue in this controversy—the one pressing upon every mind—is the sentiment on the part of one class that looks upon the institution of slavery as a wrong, and of another class that does not look upon it as a wrong. The sentiment that contemplates the institution of slavery in this country as a wrong is the sentiment of the Republican party. It is the sentiment around which all their actions, all their arguments, circle, from which all their propositions radiate. They look upon it as being a moral, social, and political wrong; and while they contemplate it as such, they nevertheless have due regard for its actual existence among us, and the difficulties of getting rid of it in any satisfactory way, and to all the constitutional obligations thrown about it.

On this subject of treating it as a wrong, and limiting its spread, let me say a word. Has anything ever threatened the existence of this Union save and except this very institution of slavery? What is it that we hold dear amongst us? Our own liberty and prosperity. What has ever threatened our liberty and prosperity, save and except this institution of slavery? If this is true, how do you propose to improve the condition of things by enlarging slavery—by spreading it out and making it bigger?

Exhibit: Source #2

David Herbert Donald, Lincoln, 19956

Context: Donald was the author of two Pulitzer Prize-winning biographies. This excerpt is from his biography of Abraham Lincoln.

There was no evidence that any considerable number of voters were concerned that the Lincoln-Douglas debates concentrated almost exclusively on questions relating to slavery. The speakers could have discussed other serious issues of great importance to a country just emerging from the panic [recession] of 1857: regulation of banks, revision of tariffs, control of immigration, provision of homesteads for farmers, improvement of the lot of factory workers, and so on and on. But the debaters focused on none of these because they, and the Illinois voters, felt that the major concern of the country was the present condition and future prospects of the institution of slavery.

By concentrating on slavery, Lincoln and Douglas naturally exaggerated their differences. In a less combative arena they would have found much on which they could agree. For instance, both men disliked slavery; Lincoln openly deplored it and Douglas privately regretted its existence.  dot dot dot  Neither man favored a slave code to protect slavery in the national territories, and neither would contemplate the extension of slavery into the free states. So numerous were their points of agreement, Lincoln candidly admitted at [the debate at] Jonesboro, that there was "very much in the principles that Judge Douglas has here enunciated that I most cordially approve, and over which I shall have no controversy with him."


1 Excerpt from IN THE COUNTRY WE LOVE by Diane Guerrero with Michelle Burford. Copyright © 2016, 2017 by Diane Guerrero. Reprinted by permission of Henry Holt and Company. All Rights Reserved.

2 Bayou, marshland around Houma, Louisiana, United States of America © NPL - DeA Picture Library / W. Buss / Bridgeman Images.

3 Grand Mosque, Djenne, Mali. Collection: Stone. Credit: Peter Adams. Getty Images.

4 View of ancient settlement of Anasazi, Chaco Ruins Culture National Park, Chetro Ketl, 11th century, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, United States of America, Anasazi civilization. Photographer: G. Cappelli. Photo credit: © NPL - DeA Picture Library / Bridgeman Images.

5 The Decemvirs framing the Twelve Tables. The Law of the Twelve Tables was the legislation that was the foundation of Roman law. The Tables consolidated earlier traditions into an enduring set of laws. From Hutchinson's History of the Nations, published 1915. Contributor: Classic Image / Alamy Stock Photo.

6 Reprinted by permission of SLL/Sterling Lord Literistic, Inc. Copyright by David Herbert Donald 1995.