Practice Test: Reading Specialist (62)

Suggested Testing Time: 4 hours

To Take This Practice Test


Question 1.

In a team meeting, prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers consult with the school's reading specialist about which approach is most effective for teaching the alphabet to young children. According to evidence on how children best learn to recognize and name letters, which of the following approaches should the specialist recommend?

  1. teaching letter recognition and formation of uppercase letters to mastery before introducing the concept of lowercase forms and then providing supplemental instruction in lowercase letters for those that differ from their uppercase forms
  2. focusing attention on distinctive features of a given letter, such as a vertical line or a closed curve, and helping children compare the letter to one or more letters with dissimilar features (e.g., comparing i and o)
  3. categorizing letters of the alphabet into sets of letters that are formed and pronounced in similar ways (e.g., grouping the letters c, e, b, d, and p together) and teaching letter names in sets of five or six letters per week
  4. introducing the alphabet song with accompanying whole-body movements that correspond to the holistic shapes of each letter before beginning practice in naming randomly ordered sets of letters

Question 2.

Which of the following strategies for promoting young children's writing development, including their understanding that print conveys a message, would be most effective and developmentally appropriate for a reading specialist to recommend to prekindergarten teachers?

  1. creating opportunities for children to write or draw meaningfully for a variety of purposes, such as telling a story, communicating with a friend, and making a list
  2. emphasizing letter-formation skills by having children trace their original sentences scribed by a teacher until they can copy sentences freehand on blank lined paper
  3. providing age-appropriate prompts that ensure children can write in a variety of genres, including writing explanations, stories, and responses to books
  4. transitioning children gradually throughout the school year to writing independently for pleasure without emphasizing correct use of letters or print conventions

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

An elementary school reading specialist advises kindergarten teachers to include regular writing opportunities as an integral component of the literacy curriculum. For example, the specialist suggests devoting a short period two to three times per week to journal writing as a time for children to engage in independent writing and drawing in a personal journal.

Question 3.

The reading specialist supports the teachers in using evidence from the children's journals to draw conclusions about their literacy development. One child includes both a drawing and a written caption in most entries. A representative sample of the child's work is shown below.

There is a childish stick figure drawing of a boy. Below the drawing, the child has written M UK S TL

The child explained the entry to the teacher by saying, "My uncle is tall!" Which of the following conclusions about the child's development in basic concepts of print is most clearly supported by this performance data?

  1. The child demonstrates awareness of the letter-sound correspondence in print.
  2. The child is not yet aware of the relationship between oral language and print.
  3. The child demonstrates knowledge of key sentence features in print.
  4. The child is not yet aware of the function of letters in print.

Question 4.

Early in the school year, the reading specialist suggests that children who are only beginning to develop letter knowledge should be encouraged but not required to include print in their journals. However, they should make an effort to draw pictures of recent events or people important to them with as much detail as possible. In which of the following ways does the drawing activity contribute specifically to children's readiness to write?

  1. by teaching children basic print concepts (e.g., letters form words, which are read left to right and from the top of a page to the bottom)
  2. by improving children's fine-motor coordination and the strength they will need to create ordered curved and straight lines in letters
  3. by preparing children to represent ideas with pictures the same way they will one day represent language with print
  4. by increasing children's stamina to sit for extended periods of time and to attend to all forms of letters on a page

Question 5.

One of the children in the class has had limited prior formal or informal literacy experiences and meets individually with the reading specialist to work on emergent literacy skills. The specialist regularly has the child bring their personal journal to the meetings. A typical entry from the child's journal is shown below.

There is a childish drawing showing a house on the left and a dog to the right of the house. There is a line below them representing the ground.

Given the child's current literacy development, which of the following strategies would be most appropriate for the specialist to use to promote the child's understanding of the function of print?

  1. writing the child's name on a card and asking the child to copy it carefully above their drawing
  2. thinking aloud about the child's drawing (e.g., "I see a friendly dog and a house") and then sounding out "dog" while writing the word on the page
  3. showing the child a page from a picture book and suggesting the child try to add some of the letters to their own drawing
  4. transcribing what the child says about their drawing as a caption and reading it back to the child

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A reading specialist observes a new prekindergarten teacher read aloud an illustrated big book called Sugar Snap Peas to the class. The teacher reads expressively and pauses often to discuss the illustrations with the class. The text of the story is shown below.

I tell Grandma, oh, how I love sugar snap peas! Grandma narrows her eyes, like she does when she is getting an idea.

A few days later, she shows me some seeds. We plant them in a box full of soil on her window sill. Oh, how I love sugar snap peas!

We water the soil every day. For days and days, it just looks like mud.

Finally, the first tiny pea plant comes up! It stretches out its two little leaves in the sun. Oh, how I love sugar snap peas!

Soon the plants are big, and they have many round leaves. And then, one day, I see little white flowers...and I see sugar snap peas! Oh, how I love sugar snap peas!

Enough for a snack? asks Grandma. She picks some sugar snaps and washes them in the sink. Then she cooks them up and puts some on my favorite blue plate.

Yum! Yum! I tell Grandma. Oh, how I love sugar snap peas! And she tells me, oh, how I love you, my very own sweet pea!

Question 6.

The reading specialist suggests strategies the teacher can use during read-alouds to promote knowledge of book-handling skills and print concepts. Which of the following recommendations by the specialist for this text would be developmentally appropriate and promote word awareness?

  1. teaching the children to chant the words they will hear in the text, Oh, how I love sugar snap peas, while clapping to every stressed syllable in the refrain and then prompting them to chant the words chorally as they listen to the text
  2. pausing during the read-aloud and calling on individual children to point out specific decodable words (e.g., she, me, see) on each page of the big book, with teacher support as needed
  3. teaching the children to chime in chorally with the words from the text, Oh, how I love sugar snap peas, and then leading them in chanting the refrain during the read-aloud by pointing to each of the component words on the page
  4. sounding out and writing the words sugar snap peas on the board before the read-aloud and then slowing down to sound out these words again when they appear on a page during the read-aloud

Question 7.

Which of the following strategies suggested by the reading specialist targets a basic print concept that should be among the earliest taught?

  1. pointing to a question mark or exclamation point at the end of a sentence before reading the sentence aloud
  2. tracking print from left-to-right by sweeping a pointer under each line of print while reading
  3. explaining to children while reading aloud that quotation marks indicate that a character is speaking
  4. noting each separate paragraph on a page before reading the page aloud

Question 8.

The reading specialist creates a page for each child that includes copies of six key illustrations taken from the book, presented in random order. In an activity after the read-aloud, the children cut out the pictures from the page, sort the pictures into story sequence, and paste them into a stapled booklet they can keep. Afterward, the children practice "reading" their books to a classmate, using the pictures as a guide. The uncut page of illustrations is shown below.

  • The first illustration shows a pea plant sprouting from the soil
  • The second illustration shows snap peas on a dinner plate next to a glass and a fork on a napkin
  • The third illustration shows an older woman with her hand on her chin and her eyes narrowed as though she's thinking
  • The fourth illustration shows snap peas in a sieve
  • The fifth illustration shows a hand planting a seed in the soil
  • The sixth illustration shows mature pea plants growing in the soil

In addition to providing the children with practice in book-handling skills, this activity reinforces the key print concept that illustrations in a book:

  1. give readers freedom to interpret a printed story as they would like.
  2. tell a reader the directionality of the print.
  3. can appear above or below the printed story or fill an entire page.
  4. correspond to the story conveyed in print.

Question 9.

An elementary school reading specialist is working with kindergarten teachers in preparation for the first curriculum night of the new school year. Which of the following activities would be most appropriate for the specialist to suggest the teachers engage parents/guardians in to help them understand the important role phonemic awareness skills play in their child's literacy development?

  1. using a book of familiar rhymes to demonstrate all the different types of activities the teachers and parents/guardians can use to develop children's phonological awareness skills
  2. having parents/guardians play a game of matching written words that begin or end with the same initial or final sound and then compare this activity to the process of spelling words
  3. demonstrating to parents/guardians how to match consonant pairs based on how the consonants are produced in the mouth to explain why children typically spell words the way they feel and hear them
  4. leading parents/guardians in a game in which they listen to a sequence of sounds and try to blend the sounds to make a word and then comparing these skills to the process of decoding

Question 10.

A reading specialist conducts a workshop for families of entering kindergartners about the role different genres of books play in children's reading development. One genre of books the specialist shows to parents/guardians are books featuring alliteration, such as "baboons bouncing balls between bags of buttons." Reading aloud books that feature alliteration is most likely to promote development of which of the following foundational literacy skills?

  1. metacognitive awareness
  2. phonological awareness
  3. morphemic awareness
  4. syllable awareness

Question 11.

A reading specialist has been working with a group of first-grade students who scored below the 25th percentile in phonemic awareness on the universal screening. Progress-monitoring data indicate that the students can orally segment three-phoneme words and can read regular CVC words. The specialist now wants to help them progress to four-phoneme words that contain an initial consonant blend. The specialist has selected a decodable text for instruction that features target CCVC words such as frog. Which of the following prereading activities would be most effective for the specialist to use to support the students' decoding skills by developing their phonemic awareness?

  1. moving discs into Elkonin boxes to segment and blend the sounds in target four-phoneme words they will encounter in the decodable text (e.g., /f/ /r/ /ŏ/ /g/ = frog)
  2. generating lists of rhyming words for target words they will encounter in the decodable text (e.g., frog, log, jog, hog)
  3. segmenting target words they will encounter in the decodable text into their onset and rime (e.g., fr/og)
  4. matching pictures of target words that begin with the same initial blend (e.g., frog and frown, spot and spill)

Question 12.

A reading specialist wants to enable kindergarten teachers to plan appropriate instruction and select appropriate books to support all children's growth as readers by helping the teachers learn how to distinguish between children who are in the partial-alphabetic phase of word recognition and children who are in the full-alphabetic phase. Which of the following characteristics should be a primary consideration in helping identify full-alphabetic readers?

  1. being able to read words that have a unique visual form by recalling and recognizing the words' salient outline/visual features
  2. being able to apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships to identify the most salient sounds in words (e.g., spelling nest with the letters  n s  )
  3. being able to decode words they have never read before by blending letter-sounds into a recognizable pronunciation/word
  4. being able to recall and recognize a larger unit of sound (e.g.,  - a k e ) to read words such as bake, cake, fake, and take

Question 13.

A reading specialist is working with a small group of first-grade students who benefit from support with letter-sound correspondences. Specifically, they tend to confuse certain consonant sounds when reading CVC words in isolation or in connected text, including  buh and puh kuh and guh tuh and duh and fuh and vuh . Which of the following approaches would be most appropriate to use to address these confusions?

  1. using an air-writing approach to reinforce print directionality and the distinctive differences that exist between letters when they are printed in isolation or in word context
  2. identifying letter-sound relationships with a multisensory approach that focuses on how and where a sound is produced in the mouth and whether it is voiced or unvoiced (e.g., prompting, "What do you feel?" "What do you hear?" "What do you see?")
  3. emphasizing a phoneme-grapheme mapping approach using Elkonin boxes to reinforce phonemic awareness and the spelling of consonant blends and vowel teams
  4. applying a tactile-kinesthetic approach that involves constructing and deconstructing target words by manipulating magnetic letters to improve the students' motor memory and automaticity in identifying letter-sound relationships

Question 14.

A middle school science teacher consults with the school reading specialist about a number of students who are not yet consistently reading multisyllabic Tier Three words in the science textbook. The teacher would like a strategy that would benefit most students so that it can be incorporated into the classroom routine. Which of the following strategies for reading multisyllabic words would be most useful for the specialist to model in disciplinary subjects?

  1. predicting word pronunciation and meaning using context clues explicitly stated in the text
  2. using sound-by-sound decoding to ensure the pronunciation of all word parts
  3. applying an approach that analyzes a word's structure by identifying the affixes and root before dividing the word into syllables
  4. identifying appropriate syllable-division strategies based on consonant-vowel patterns (e.g., VC/CV, V/CV, VC/V, V/V, C +le)

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A reading specialist is working with a beginning second-grade student who needs support in phonics to improve word recognition and spelling. The following is a written summary the student wrote after listening to a version of the classic fable, The Rabbit and the Turtle. A transcript of the summary appears below the student's writing sample. The writing sample shown is representative of the student's spelling performance on daily written assignments.

Turtl and rabit had a rase becus rabit cept braging, so he thot it wud be grate to see who was beter. Rabit made fun of turtl but rabit was far ahed, so he tuk a nap and turtl past him. Then rabit woke up to late and turtl got the ribin.

In the first sentence, the student spelled turtle t u r t l, race r a s e, because b e c u s, rabbit r a b i t, kept c e p t, bragging b r a g i n g, thought t h o t, would w u d, great g r a t e, and better b e t e r.
In the second sentence, the student spelled rabbit r a b i t, turtle t u r t l, rabbit r a b i t, ahead a h e d, took t u k, and turtle t u r t l.
In the final sentence, the student spelled rabbit r a b I t, turtle t u r t l, and ribbon r i b i n.

The sample is repeated with correct spelling: (Turtle and rabbit had a race because rabbit kept bragging, so he thought it would be great to see who was better. Rabbit made fun of turtle, but rabbit was far ahead, so he took a nap and turtle passed him. Then rabbit woke up too late and turtle got the ribbon.)

Question 15.

Given the student's writing sample, the reading specialist could best conclude the student's spelling performance is aligned with which of the following stages of orthographic development?

  1. pre-alphabetic
  2. partial alphabetic
  3. consolidated alphabetic
  4. full alphabetic

Question 16.

The reading specialist could best use knowledge of the evidence-based progression of phonics skills and an analysis of the student's current spelling performance to conclude that the student is ready to be introduced to which of the following phonics concepts?

  1. Inflectional endings have a consistent spelling, even though their pronunciation can vary.
  2. Syllable stress affects vowel pronunciations in multisyllabic words, resulting in some vowels making an indistinct schwa sound.
  3. Diphthongs are formed when the mouth changes positions from one vowel sound to another.
  4. The medial consonant is usually doubled in a word with two closed syllables and one medial consonant sound.

Question 17.

Given the student's writing sample, which of the following instructional practices would best support the student's spelling development by reinforcing both phonics skills and the orthographic mapping process?

  1. reminding the student to represent each speech sound with a letter when spelling words independently
  2. having the student use Elkonin boxes to practice spelling words containing common Greek and Latin roots
  3. teaching the student to recognize and divide syllables in phonetically regular words
  4. introducing common derivational morphemes and promoting word analysis strategies

Question 18.

A reading specialist meets with first-grade teachers during a team meeting to discuss evidence-based practices that promote automatic word recognition. The teachers share examples of the book boxes they have created for individual students to use during independent reading time. The boxes consist of texts students have either read in small-group instruction or have self-selected on topics of interest. According to evidence-based practices, which of the following types of text should the specialist recommend be included in students' book boxes to improve their automatic word recognition?

  1. alliterative alphabet books, nursery rhymes, and rhyming books with predictable text with which students are already familiar
  2. a wide variety of genres, including at least 50 percent informational texts
  3. unfamiliar decodable stories and poems that align with phonics patterns the students already know or are currently learning
  4. texts that include the same words the students have studied during instruction

Question 19.

A reading specialist meets with a small group of first-grade students who scored well below the 25th percentile on the midyear oral reading fluency benchmark assessment. The teacher reports that the students have developed sound-symbol associations for most consonants but are confusing short vowels. They also tend to guess when they come to unfamiliar words in connected text rather than trying to apply decoding skills. The specialist plans to use decodable text with the students. Which of the following instructional approaches is most likely to address the students' decoding needs to support their oral reading fluency?

  1. using tactile-kinesthetic techniques with the students, such as tracing and air writing new words they will encounter in their decodable texts
  2. engaging the students in sound-by-sound blending when initially reading new decodable texts and repeated whisper reading with monitoring and corrective feedback until accurate decoding becomes automatic
  3. having the students read targeted phonics patterns in word families for extra practice and read a list of words rapidly in succession, one after another
  4. identifying the pronunciation of letters for the students using multisensory cues that include the position of the articulators in the mouth for each letter-sound relationship and using a mirror to reinforce accurate articulation

Question 20.

A reading specialist recommends that upper elementary teachers promote students' oral reading with expression at the passage level to support students' reading comprehension. Which of the following strategies would be most critical for teachers to implement to improve students' prosody and comprehension?

  1. providing sufficient time for students to practice expressive reading on their own without monitoring to gain confidence
  2. reading informational passages chorally and then inviting various interpretations of the content for discussion purposes
  3. modeling expressive reading of a selected part of a text and then having students immediately echo read the same selection
  4. marking informational texts with phrase boundaries for students to follow independently and then with a peer

Question 21.

A reading specialist observes that when students mispronounce a word when reading aloud a text, teachers tend to immediately supply a correction. Which of the following strategies for improving teacher feedback would be most appropriate for promoting students' self-correction?

  1. reminding students to use an analogy strategy in which they try to think of another word they know that has a similar spelling (e.g., "If you can read bread, you can read dread.")
  2. providing students with prompts to promote rereading and confirmation (e.g., asking the student to reread the word, asking the student to reread the sentence, asking the student if the word or sentence makes sense as it was read)
  3. monitoring students' oral reading while recording their reading errors and then providing them with the transcript to review and correct at the end of their oral reading
  4. providing students with a specific decoding strategy each time they misread a word in a connected text (e.g., "look up the word's pronunciation in a dictionary," "read the word sound-by-sound," "divide the word into syllables")

Use the information below to answer the two questions that follow.

A reading specialist is implementing a teacher-led repeated-reading activity with a third-grade student who performs below grade-level oral reading fluency benchmarks. First, the teacher reads aloud a decodable passage to the student as the student follows along on a copy of the same passage. Next, the student reads the same passage aloud to the teacher several times. The teacher gives immediate feedback regarding the student's accuracy, rate, and expression.

Question 22.

One of the benefits to students of participating regularly in repeated-reading fluency activities with the teacher like the one described is that such practice:

  1. allows students to independently improve the accuracy component of fluency.
  2. supports students' development and awareness of the importance of prosody.
  3. focuses students' attention primarily on rate, which can be measured objectively.
  4. provides students with exposure to a wider selection of grade-level passages.

Question 23.

When implementing a fluency activity with students who are not yet fluent readers, the reading specialist should be aware that which of the following actions is best aligned with evidence-based practice?

  1. pairing students with peers who are confident in their reading
  2. emphasizing increasing students' reading rate over their accuracy and prosody
  3. minimizing students' accountability for their fluency progress
  4. providing students with corrective feedback while they read aloud a familiar text

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

An elementary school reading specialist will be working with six fourth-grade students. The specialist plans to monitor the oral reading fluency of the students throughout the school quarter on a biweekly basis using grade-level benchmark passages. The specialist calculates each student's words correct per minute (WCPM) and records the information in a chart, organized from highest to lowest WCPM. The specialist also rates each student on their phrasing and other elements of prosody using an evidence-based fluency scale, with scores ranging from a low of 1 to a high of 4. The results for the beginning-of-intervention baseline assessment are shown in the chart below. The students' names have been substituted with letters.

Caseload Fluency Snapshot
Grade: 4

Middle-of-Year (MOY) Benchmarks in Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM):

90th percentile = 168 WCPM
75th percentile = 143 WCPM
50th percentile = 120 WCPM
25th percentile = 95 WCPM
10th percentile = 71 WCPM

Prosody Rating:

  1. Reads in a monotone with little sense of phrase boundaries, frequent extended pauses, word-by-word reading, little or no adherence to punctuation, and/or phrasing that does not preserve meaningful syntax.
  2. Reads in two or three word phrases giving the impression of choppy reading, inconsistently adheres to punctuation, and uses stress/intonation that is inconsistent in marking the end of sentences and clauses.
  3. Reads primarily in longer phrases adhering to punctuation that preserves the syntax of the author, experiences some choppiness caused by difficulties with specific words or structures but overall has reasonable stress/intonation, and expressive interpretation of text is minimal.
  4. Reads with good phrasing in mostly clause and sentence units, adhering to punctuation, stress, and intonation and preserving the author's syntax; and reads with expressive interpretation of the text.
WCPM Range Student Identifier (WCPM, Prosody Rating)
130  to  139 student A (139, 1)
120  to  129 student B (128, 2); student C (121, 2)
110  to  119 student D (119, 2)
90  to  109 student E (95, 1); student F (109, 2)
71  to  89 student G (89, 1)

Question 24.

According to the data in the chart, which of the following evidence-based practices is most likely to benefit all of the students?

  1. reading decodable text with corrective feedback
  2. marking phrase boundaries in a text to chunk words into meaningful phrases
  3. dividing multisyllabic words into recognizable parts
  4. charting words correct per minute (WCPM) for successive repeated readings of a text

Question 25.

The reading specialist analyzes the word-reading errors, pauses, and self-corrections of students E, F, and G and notices the following types of self-corrected errors: initially reading rowdy as  rue dee   grouchy as  grun chee   release as  re lax   and crowd as  crude   Which of the following evidence-based strategies would most likely improve these students' automatic word recognition and therefore their oral reading fluency rate?

  1. practicing applying morphemic analysis skills
  2. practicing reading words that end in final stable syllables
  3. practicing echoing the teacher's modeled fluent reading of texts
  4. practicing sorting and reading words containing vowel-team syllables

Question 26.

The Prosody Rating descriptions in the chart on assessment convey the reciprocal relationship between the prosody component of fluency and reading comprehension primarily because the descriptions:

  1. indicate the qualitative aspects of fluency that encompass how smooth a reader sounds overall when engaged in oral reading.
  2. explain how a reader's background knowledge can affect both their oral reading fluency and reading comprehension.
  3. focus on how a high level of oral reading fluency can free up a reader's cognitive resources to devote to comprehension.
  4. connect a reader's phrasing, stress, and intonation with their ability to interpret the meaning of the text being read.

Question 27.

A reading specialist works on a content-area reading unit with a fifth-grade teacher. Over the course of several weeks, students work in small, heterogenous groups to read, analyze, and write about three or four complex texts. The teacher supports the groups as they complete an outline identifying main ideas and key details from each text. This unit most closely addresses which of the following guiding principles outlined in the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts and Literacy?

  1. Reading well-crafted text is an essential foundation for developing effective writing skills.
  2. Students should read a diverse set of authentic texts balanced across genres, cultures, and time periods.
  3. Developing the ability to write well demands regular practice across multiple forms and genres of writing.
  4. Students should have frequent opportunities for discussing and writing about their readings.

Question 28.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

As part of a professional development seminar, a high school reading specialist and a group of teachers examine the following passage to analyze aspects of text complexity that may be challenging for students.

I was prepared to refuse your offer, sir, for I had been warned. You are forever after your own ends, many say, and without qualms when it comes to hiding sharp tricks inside soft veils of words. So, when your offer came, I was prepared to say no.

But you are a far sight from the man I expected. Here you stand before me offering your hand, and in return you ask only that I help a needful stranger, someday, someone not yet known to either of us, whom I may have the means to help. You are different, I say. You are not whom I expected.

In the passage, which of the following dimensions of text complexity is most likely to present the greatest challenge for high school readers?

  1. the complexity of syntactic structures and figurative language
  2. the raw word length and morphological complexity of words
  3. the presence or absence of cohesive elements in the text
  4. the thematic content and levels of meaning in the text

Question 29.

An elementary school reading specialist who is selecting materials for a small-group intervention focused on analyzing poetry begins by identifying several poems that are aligned with the students' instructional content. As a general rule, which of the following questions would be most important to consider when determining the complexity level of poetry?

  1. Is the genre derived from a historic form no longer widely in use?
  2. Are the ideas and themes expressed appropriate to the grade level?
  3. Is the meaning partly dependent on graphical elements or features?
  4. Are the rhyme schemes or metrical forms already familiar to the students?

Question 30.

A middle school reading specialist is building a resource room library with the goal of including materials that will promote independent reading for pleasure among readers receiving support. Which of the following types of text would be most effective for this purpose?

  1. popular magazines with multiple subject matters and photographs, but limited text
  2. picture books with appealing illustrations and complex characters and stories
  3. texts on grade-appropriate topics with compelling prose and appropriate readability
  4. grade-level short stories with easily recognizable conventions, genres, and predictable plots

Question 31.

An elementary school reading specialist is helping a third-grade team select content-area texts to support instruction for students who are not yet consistently decoding grade-level words. Which of the following text profiles would be most appropriate for this purpose?

  1. texts using simple language structures and Tier One vocabulary that focus on concepts matching grade-level content-area standards
  2. texts that are composed mostly of decodable words and contain very few challenging words, but include a few conceptually key academic words that are repeated several times
  3. texts that supplement information presented verbally with a wealth of illustrations and other elements, such as tables, maps, and graphs
  4. texts that reduce cognitive load by simplifying sentences and providing engaging illustrations, but which also include Tier Three academic vocabulary

Question 32.

High school students watch segments of a performance of the William Shakespeare play they are reading in class. The students then participate in close readings of key scenes from the play before writing a literary analysis. In addition to promoting students' deep appreciation for a work of literature, this approach also promotes students' comprehension of challenging texts by:

  1. requiring them to identify a clear purpose and a well-defined audience before writing.
  2. providing them with opportunities to build and expand on their background knowledge.
  3. ensuring that they read a diverse range of authentic texts balanced across multiple genres.
  4. having them read well-crafted texts that can serve as models for their own writing.

Use the information below to answer the four questions that follow.

A reading specialist is collaborating with a fifth-grade teacher on a classroom writing unit. Students in the class are assigned to write a narrative essay about a time when they were surprised or impressed when observing someone's response to a challenging situation.

One student's first essay draft appears below.

I didn't know my aunt was so daring. The auditorum was full. All the students and teachers were crowded in. Also the parents were. We sat there for like 2 hours. It was hot! It is finally my sister's turn. She won an aword for her science project. She is ready to give her speech. She practised and it was five minutes. Which she plans all along. She made sure it was only 5 minutes. I helped her time it. She talks about what she found out. It is called can adding heat make something move? Then Mr. James gets up. He says Shurya thank you. Shurya looked suprised. Mr. James said what a great project. He was shaking Shurya's hand and is giving her a little nodge. That is when my aunt stood up. She shouted we want to hear the speech. Let Shurya finish! And then a bunch of parents shout let her finish! And so Mr. James sits down. Shurya finishes. Evryone clapped. I think they wouldn't have dared to shout out exept my aunt did first. Then they do it. I was proud of Shurya. And also my aunt!!

Question 33.

Which of the following attributes of effective writing does the student demonstrate in this draft?

  1. providing a sense of closure appropriate to the narrated experiences or events
  2. linking ideas within and across categories by using words, phrases, or clauses
  3. drawing on characteristics, elements, or features of a traditional literary genre
  4. conveying events precisely by using descriptive details and figurative language

Question 34.

The reading specialist meets individually with the student to identify specific areas of the essay that need revision before providing the student with direct instruction to support the revisions. The student would benefit most from using which of the following techniques when revising this essay?

  1. adjusting language and word choice to conform with genre expectations and the needs of the intended audience
  2. using a spell-check and grammatical function in word processing software to identify and correct errors in word usage and spelling
  3. linking opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses to convey ideas clearly to the reader
  4. sequencing events with the use of signal words and paragraphs to indicate flashbacks or parts of the story that are out of sequence

Question 35.

The reading specialist makes note of specific gaps in the student's mastery of grade-level writing conventions and skills as outlined in the Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts and Literacy. Given the evidence in the student's draft, the specialist should provide the student with explicit instruction in which of the following areas?

  1. using conventional spellings of Tier Three vocabulary words consistently
  2. using parallel structure as a technique for creating coherence in paragraphs
  3. using punctuation and capitalization conventions to denote direct speech
  4. using words for numbers from zero to nine and numerals for numbers above nine

Question 36.

The reading specialist makes note of specific gaps in the student's mastery of standard English grammar and usage. Given the evidence in the student's draft, the specialist should provide the student with explicit instruction in which of the following grammar conventions?

  1. choosing pronouns that agree with their antecedents with respect to number and function
  2. choosing between using active and passive verbs depending on the meaning of the sentence
  3. using various types of adjectival, participial, and prepositional phrases to convey meanings
  4. using correct verb tense consistently and correcting inappropriate shifts in verb tense

Question 37.

Eleventh-grade students are asked to research and write an essay that recounts an important event or moment of decision in the life of a historical figure. The finished essay must include the following information.

  1. background information about the historical figure
  2. an account of the pivotal event
  3. a review of primary sources
  4. an analysis of the event's importance in the life of the historical figure and in a broader historical context

When writing the section of the paper that provides background information on the historical figure, students would benefit most from instruction in which of the following writing modes?

  1. description
  2. exposition
  3. analysis
  4. reflection

Question 38.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

A school is planning to purchase a computer-based program for teaching keyboarding skills. The reading specialist and the school's technology teacher consult to review the available options and determine which program would be most appropriate for supporting students who demonstrate reading and writing challenges. The chart shown summarizes the key features of each program.

FeaturesProgram AProgram BProgram CProgram D
Has motivating graphics and illustrationsYesYesNoNo
Spoken letter-name prompt optionYesYesYesNo
Spoken letter-sound prompt optionNoYesYesYes
Target word is visible on-screen to studentsYesYesYesNo
Scoring feedback that can be disabledSpeedAccuracySpeedAccuracy
On-screen font optionsLarge- Print FontsBold-Print FontsSans Serif FontsCursive Fonts

According to the information in the chart, which program would best support students who are experiencing reading and writing challenges in developing their keyboarding skills?

  1. Program A
  2. Program B
  3. Program C
  4. Program D

Question 39.

Several middle school teachers who are new to conducting close reading of complex texts tell the reading specialist that students do not like having to reread the same text. The specialist can best support the teachers in implementing effective evidence-based close reading by recommending which of the following strategies?

  1. pre-teaching or frontloading vocabulary or other aspects of the text that are likely to challenge students
  2. guiding teachers to set a purpose for each reading (e.g., looking for evidence in response to specific questions)
  3. switching to scaffolded instruction by asking more questions that check for general understanding and providing direct explanations, as needed
  4. allowing students to provide evidence from their own experiences to answer questions about a text in order to make lessons more relevant to their own lives

Question 40.

A reading specialist wants to introduce an explicit, systematic, and cumulative approach for teaching K  to  2 students to comprehend narrative text. Which of the following evidence-based approaches to teaching text comprehension is best aligned with the learning standards regarding students' understanding of story elements?

  1. using a student-led reciprocal-teaching model with narrative texts (predicting, clarifying, questioning, summarizing)
  2. determining Question-Answer Relationships ( Q A R ) using a narrative text (answer right there, think and search, author and me, on my own)
  3. providing students with story maps during reading and modeling how to track and analyze specific content (characters, settings, and events)
  4. implementing literature circles with narrative texts to develop specific student roles (word wizard, discussion director, super summarizer, connector, passage picker)

Question 41.

A reading specialist is comparing discussion frameworks by their features. The specialist wants to model a framework that upper elementary school teachers can use to promote high-quality discussions that prompt readers to reach a deeper understanding of a text by taking a critical-analytic stance. Which of the following frameworks aligns best with this goal?

  1. Question-Answer Relationships
  2. reader's theatre
  3. literature circles
  4. Socratic Seminar

Question 42.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

A middle school reading specialist shares the following findings with content-area teachers.

An essential aspect of online research is the ability to critically evaluate information. Yet, evidence suggests that adolescent readers often distort or disregard new ideas that contradict their thinking. This results in students revising their online reading path to focus primarily on locating details that confirm what they already believe.

Given this information, the reading specialist recommends teachers follow an evidence-based instructional sequence designed to guide students to be more objective in their online research. Which of the following steps would be most appropriate for the teachers to include at the beginning of this process?

  1. teaching students explicitly about the dimensions of critical evaluation, including relevance, accuracy, bias/perspective, and reliability
  2. prompting students to look for evidence that supports their own claims
  3. having students cross-check claims made by an author across multiple websites using an online framework designed for this purpose
  4. selecting and providing sources to support the students' online research projects

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A reading specialist is modeling an evidence-based vocabulary-learning activity with a third-grade class who is listening to and discussing a narrative text in which the main character is not pleased with their boring life and seeks adventure. The specialist selects the adjective content to be the target word in the activity because it is important for analyzing the main character's personality. Some of the planned components of the lesson are listed below.

  • Students repeat the word content several times.
  • The specialist and students read the word in the story's context.
  • The specialist explains the meaning further using language that is understood by the students.
  • The teacher provides examples and non-examples of the word and then example sentences using the word in a new context.
  • Students work with a classmate to use the word in sentences.

Question 43.

According to evidence-based practice, which of the following components would be most important for the reading specialist to add to the vocabulary lesson described to ensure the students can read the target word with understanding?

  1. locating texts the students have read previously in which the author could have used the word content to describe a main character
  2. pointing out the polysemous nature of the word content and how context affects both its pronunciation and meaning
  3. categorizing the word content according to whether it is an example of a Tier One, Tier Two, or Tier Three word
  4. creating an idiom or mnemonic device for remembering the word content and its student-friendly meaning

Question 44.

According to evidence-based practice, which of the following components would be most important for the reading specialist to emphasize with the classroom teacher to ensure that the vocabulary-learning activity becomes a cumulative process that expands students' vocabulary usage and comprehension?

  1. providing students with opportunities to engage in wordplay, student discourse, and extended writing with the new vocabulary words
  2. having students enter both the dictionary and student-friendly definition in a personal vocabulary journal
  3. asking students to write a sentence using the targeted vocabulary and then reading the sentence aloud to a partner
  4. adding the word to students' spelling homework and posting it on a word wall for adjectives that describe feelings

Question 45.

There are several developing-level (intermediate-level) English learners in the class whose home language is a Romance language (e.g., Portuguese, Spanish, French). Which of the following evidence-based strategies would be most appropriate for the reading specialist to recommend the classroom teacher use to further support the students' learning of the target word?

  1. providing a completed word matrix and having students write sentences that feature the word content with both a prefix and suffix
  2. listing alternative everyday words for content (e.g., happy, glad) during the component of the lesson that focuses on a student-friendly definition
  3. explaining that the word content is an academic word from Latin and, like many academic words in English, has a cognate in their home languages
  4. dividing the word content into syllables to focus on potential differences between how the word might be pronounced in their home languages

Question 46.

After presenting an overview of disciplinary literacy to faculty, a high school reading specialist facilitates a discussion about the specific traits of literacy in each of the major disciplines. Which of the following statements would be most appropriate for the specialist to include when discussing mathematics?

  1. Alternative explanations and interpretations of the data are routinely examined when creating a statement of the problem.
  2. Observations are central to the discipline and these are analyzed and interpreted within a theoretical framework.
  3. The context in which the work was produced is considered when interpreting and understanding the content.
  4. Proofs are unusually succinct, relying on bare statements of essential ideas and symbolic representations.

Question 47.

A reading specialist works with a small group of students after a social science lesson. With support from the specialist, the students evaluate an editorial piece about the ratification of a constitutional amendment written at the time of the event. Students identify the writer's argument and supporting evidence and assess the soundness of the writer's reasoning. Which of the following steps would be most appropriate for the students to take next to evaluate this document in historical context?

  1. rereading the editorial to determine if the writer has offered a way forward, either implicitly or explicitly, and whether any such proposed solution would be practical
  2. analyzing the tone, the formality or informality of the language used in the piece, and the writer's rhetorical skill to determine the likely educational level of the writer
  3. establishing the writer's credibility and potential biases by considering the accuracy of the facts included in the piece, any omission of relevant facts, and any use of loaded language
  4. making an analogy between the issues addressed in the piece and contemporary issues and predicting the position the editorial writer would likely take on the contemporary issues

Use the information below to answer the four questions that follow.

As part of a middle school social studies unit about the Paleolithic Age, a reading specialist agrees to demonstrate a whole-class content-area reading lesson using an adapted Reading and Analyzing Nonfiction (RAN) chart. The specialist explains the steps of the RAN strategy that the students will use when reading a passage entitled "Hunter-Gatherer Societies in the Paleolithic Age."

  1. Before reading, students note what they think they know about the topic of the passage in column one, "What I Think I Know."
  2. During reading, students look for information that confirms items in column one and record their findings in the "Yes" and "No" columns.
  3. During reading, students take notes in the "New Knowledge" column about any new information that seems surprising or important to understanding the topic.
  4. After reading, students discuss the passage and their notes in the chart. They also consider what they "wonder" about the topic after reading the passage and record that information in the "Wonderings" column.

An excerpt from the RAN chart the students completed during the lesson is shown below.

Hunter-Gatherer Societies in the Paleolithic Age

What I Think I Know Yes No New Knowledge Wonderings
They all lived in caves. check Some lived in tents, huts. They were nomads. Where in the world did humans live during the Paleolithic Age?
They all helped get food by hunting and gathering nuts, berries. ? Scientists disagree about how jobs were assigned. Agriculture leads to settlements and the Neolithic Age. How did archeologists figure out how jobs were assigned in these groups?
made stone tools check blank Paleolithic means 'old stone.' The P. Age is when humans made stone tools. How did the idea of making tools come up?

Question 48.

When using the  R A N  strategy, students formally compose their questions only after reading the text. Which of the following statements best identifies a significant way this practice supports the development of students' disciplinary literacy?

  1. Students' reflective questions are influenced by the discipline-specific information in the passage and developed using their newly acquired knowledge of the subject.
  2. Students are more likely to engage in a discipline-specific inquiry when they initially encounter a text with a teacher-directed question in mind.
  3. Students can answer teacher-directed discipline-specific questions before reading and then use information to refine and revise them when formulating their final questions.
  4. Students' learning experiences are richer and deeper when they are motivated to look for discipline-specific language with which to formulate their questions.

Question 49.

During a meeting with the reading specialist, the social studies teacher notes that they plan to build on the specialist's lesson when promoting students' understanding of the field of archeology as it relates to the Paleolithic Age. Which of the following suggestions by the specialist would be most effective for this purpose?

  1. replacing the grade-level passage with a professional journal article examining a recent archeological find or approach to the Paleolithic Age
  2. focusing the discussion and charting activity related to the "Wonderings" column on determining what students think they know about archeology
  3. creating a list of facts from the "What I Think I Know" and "New Knowledge" columns and reviewing the passage in small groups to identify evidence that led archeologists to construct those facts
  4. having students write a journal entry after reading where they list what they learned from the lesson about the work of archeologists

Question 50.

For an upcoming project, students are asked to select a research topic of their choice related to the content of the unit. Having students select their research topics primarily enhances their achievement of literacy goals and grade-level learning standard in which of the following ways?

  1. reducing the time students spend in formal instruction and increasing the amount of time the teaching staff can spend working with them individually
  2. connecting students' development of content-area research skills to their own background knowledge and interests
  3. focusing students' attention on unusual material or issues of particular complexity, which they identified during reading
  4. providing students with opportunities to work individually in an environment apart from their peers

Question 51.

Following the reading specialist's lesson, the social studies teacher prepares an activity that will address the following question students raised after reading and noted in their RAN chart.

How did archeologists figure out how jobs were assigned in these groups?

Which of the following aspects of disciplinary knowledge would be most essential to target as a learning goal in a lesson focused on this question?

  1. Are the archeologists associated with the competing theories biased or unbiased?
  2. What kinds of data do archeologists use to develop or support a conclusion?
  3. How are research findings in archeology shared with others in the field?
  4. What are the primary objects of study in archeology?

Question 52.

A reading specialist is assisting second-grade teachers in forming groups for reading instruction based on universal screening data. Several English learners scored in the "no risk" range for code-based skills. According to evidence-based practice, which of the following additional factors should the specialist and teachers consider when making instructional grouping decisions for the English learners in reading?

  1. identifying each student's home language and grouping them according to whether the home language is alphabetic or nonalphabetic
  2. using decoding measures that focus on multisyllabic words in addition to measures that focus on single-syllable words and syllable types
  3. ensuring that students who share the same home language are assigned to the same group for reading instruction
  4. supplementing students' decoding and text-reading fluency data with data in the domains of language and reading comprehension

Question 53.

As part of a faculty presentation on meeting the literacy needs of all students, an elementary school reading specialist would like to increase awareness among teachers of advantages as well as unique challenges bilingual students (i.e., students fluent in two languages) may experience in the course of their literacy education. Which of the following statements identifies an evidence-based advantage or challenge experienced by readers who are bilingual compared to their monolingual peers?

  1. Bilingual learners' metalinguistic awareness is more advanced than their age-level peers.
  2. Bilingual learners will need instruction to understand illustrations that are presented in text.
  3. Bilingual learners' development of separate lexical and syntactic systems for each language may promote their skill in academic vocabulary development.
  4. Bilingual learners may be more likely to need explicit guidance to negotiate conventions in written or spoken discourse in their home language.

Question 54.

A middle school reading specialist recommends that content-area teachers support English learners' vocabulary and concept development in English by using small discussion groups that take advantage of shared home languages. For example, after explicitly introducing a text's new content vocabulary in English (e.g., flexibility and conductivity for an assignment comparing the properties of metals, plastics, wood, and ceramics), teachers should provide discussion prompts and have students discuss the new terminology and related concepts in their home language. Which of the following statements best explains the evidence-based rationale for the specialist's approach to vocabulary learning?

  1. English learners acquire academic language most effectively when new vocabulary words are introduced implicitly during informal, social interactions.
  2. English learners who have not yet achieved Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency ( C A L P ) in English can effectively rely on their Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills ( B I C S ) in English to understand new academic vocabulary.
  3. English learners who have the opportunity to discuss new vocabulary and content in the home language increase the depth of their learning in both the home language and English.
  4. English learners develop confidence and skill in performing complex academic tasks when they are given responsibility to learn the tasks on their own.

Question 55.

Which of the following statements accurately identifies a difference between first- and new-language development?

  1. Age of acquisition affects a new-language learner's phonological proficiency level in the new language, but age of acquisition does not affect phonological proficiency in the first language.
  2. Syntax development in the first language builds on universal grammar and language input, but syntax in a new language is also influenced by the syntax of the first language.
  3. A first-language learners' word length in expressive vocabulary is limited by their morphological knowledge, but morphology does not directly affect new-language learners' vocabulary.
  4. Pragmatic competence in interpreting and using nonverbal communication such as gestures is innate in one's first language, but it has to be learned in a new language.

Question 56.

Which of the following statements refers to a generalization about language development that is accurate for both first- and new-language learners?

  1. Language learners are able to comprehend language that is more complex than the language they are able to produce themselves.
  2. A language learner's mean length of utterance increases slowly and very incrementally over an extended period of time.
  3. A language learner's vocabulary growth is most dependent on direct instruction in a decontextualized setting.
  4. Language learners use metacognitive processes to develop syntax in the early stages of language acquisition.

Question 57.

An elementary school reading specialist is part of a school task force evaluating school protocols for identifying students with learning disabilities. A retrospective review of school data shows that a disproportionately greater percentage of English learners have been identified as having a specific learning disability (SLD) compared to their peers whose home language is English. According to evidence-based practices related to identifying culturally and linguistically diverse students with learning disabilities, which of the following questions would be most relevant for the task force to consider when evaluating the school's identification process?

  1. What consideration is given to alignment between a student's performance on diagnostic assessments and the results from progress-monitoring assessments?
  2. Are school staff informed about new-language development and prepared to recognize and support English learners' language-learning needs with specialized instructional strategies?
  3. Are all students closely monitored for adequate language and literacy development or only some student populations?
  4. Do English learners who need support with grade-level curricula and who are referred for diagnostic assessments have access to an advocate who can communicate effectively with school staff?

Question 58.

Which of the following early childhood diagnoses increases the risk that a child will experience difficulty later in their reading development?

  1. atypical craniofacial features
  2. nonverbal learning disability
  3. low oral muscular tone
  4. articulation and pronunciation difficulties

Question 59.

Children who have challenges with nonphonological language skills are most likely to require support in which of the following areas of reading?

  1. fluency
  2. decoding
  3. comprehension
  4. phonemic awareness

Question 60.

A child who has been diagnosed with dyslexia may exhibit a higher level of comprehension than word-reading ability primarily for which of the following reasons?

  1. Oral language strengths provide a foundation for understanding texts that may be challenging to decode.
  2. Long- and short-term memory skills are unrelated to the phonological processes required for accurate decoding.
  3. The brain processes expressive vocabulary and its orthographic representation simultaneously.
  4. The brain's visual processing system allows readers to generate the accurate mental pictures required for strong comprehension.

Question 61.

A sixth-grade science teacher approaches the reading specialist with concerns about meeting the needs of a student who exhibits strong oral language skills and vocabulary and was recently diagnosed with dyslexia. The student is highly engaged during classroom discussions but is reading significantly below grade-level expectations. Which of the following approaches for meeting this student's needs would be most appropriate for the specialist to recommend?

  1. adapting classroom materials and assignments to include fully decodable texts so that the student can read them independently
  2. modifying course content to include videos and audiobook versions of informational texts at and above the student's reading level
  3. providing the student with extra assignments written at a lower reading level so that the student does not become bored or frustrated
  4. allowing the student to complete all assignments with the help of a peer who is reading at or above grade level

Question 62.

Which of the following students exhibits traits, that in addition to reading challenges, are commonly experienced as part of a diagnosis of double deficit dyslexia?

  1. a third-grade student who has not yet mastered recalling multiplication facts with automaticity
  2. a third-grade student who does not yet consistently follow multistep directions given orally
  3. a first-grade student who cannot yet articulate several unvoiced fricative consonant sounds
  4. a first-grade student who leaves their seat frequently and does not consistently complete work

Question 63.

Which of the following students would most likely be at risk for a later diagnosis of dyslexia?

  1. a kindergarten student possessing limited expressive and receptive vocabulary in both a primary and secondary language
  2. a second-grade student who has received adequate spelling instruction and is spelling high-frequency and grade-level words phonetically
  3. a kindergarten student who is having difficulty maintaining focus on assignments and tasks when they are not preferred activities
  4. a second-grade student who is not making adequate progress in reading despite effective instruction and age-appropriate cognitive skills

Question 64.

At the end of the school year, students at each grade level are asked to read aloud a grade-level text that they should be able to read in the 50th percentile range for words correct per minute (WCPM) with 95 percent accuracy. Which of the following types of assessment is being administered?

  1. diagnostic
  2. dynamic
  3. norm referenced
  4. screener

Question 65.

An elementary school reading specialist works with classroom teachers to identify students at each grade level who did not make adequate progress to meet midyear benchmarks in various areas of reading. The specialist is concerned that the students are not going to meet end-of-year goals. Which of the following assessment strategies should the specialist use to improve outcomes for the students by the end of the school year?

  1. progress monitoring to gauge the students' progress and then make appropriate adjustments to instruction
  2. adding summative assessments several times a year to provide additional data on individual students
  3. implementing norm-referenced tests to be able to compare the students' progress with that of peers from comparable districts
  4. obtaining standardized scores for the students to obtain a percentile ranking for the students who did not meet the midyear benchmarks

Question 66.

A reading specialist asks upper elementary school teachers to share progress-monitoring assessment data for students in various areas of reading. In reviewing the data against midyear benchmark assessment data, the specialist notices that teachers who use progress-monitoring assessments on a regular basis have students with better reading outcomes than teachers who do not regularly administer progress-monitoring assessments. Which of the following attributes of progress-monitoring assessments most likely accounts for this trend?

  1. Progress-monitoring assessments can be administered to a whole class in a single sitting.
  2. Progress-monitoring assessments can be administered according to a regular schedule.
  3. Progress-monitoring assessment data can be used to adjust instruction in response to current data.
  4. Progress-monitoring assessment data can be used to establish baseline data on a student's performance.

Question 67.

A reading specialist wants to select an assessment to use midyear to evaluate student learning in various areas of reading development compared to universal grade-level standards or school benchmarks. Which of the following types of assessment is most appropriate for this purpose?

  1. summative
  2. norm referenced
  3. progress monitoring
  4. criterion referenced

Question 68.

A high school reading specialist reviews the data for a ninth-grade student. The student has above-average word-recognition skills, including reading multisyllabic words with automaticity. However, the student's performance on both formal and informal assessments of comprehension is below grade-level expectations. Which of the following types of assessment is likely to yield the most useful information about the student's potential for responding to instruction in comprehension?

  1. norm referenced
  2. summative
  3. criterion referenced
  4. dynamic

Question 69.

The fifth-grade English language arts teachers in a middle school regularly administer standards-aligned, end-of-quarter assessments in reading comprehension and vocabulary skills (e.g., morphemic analysis). After each test is given, the school's reading specialist supports the teachers in analyzing students' responses item-by-item to tally the number of students who responded to each item correctly. They then analyze the questions that the largest number of students got wrong to discuss implications for instruction. In this scenario, the specialist and teachers use which of the following types of statistical processes to support their analysis?

  1. mode
  2. standard deviation
  3. sample size
  4. mean

Question 70.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

A reading specialist is reviewing a third-grade student's results on norm-referenced tests as part of a diagnostic assessment. The results are shown below.

Area of Assessment Subtests Composite Score Percentile
Phonological Awareness
  • Phoneme elision task
  • Sound blending to form words
  • Sound matching
94 35th
Phonological Memory
  • Memory for digits
  • Nonword repetition
79 8th
Rapid Automatic Naming
  • Rapid color naming
  • Rapid object naming
70 2nd

The specialist is considering appropriate scaffolds for core reading instruction for this student. Given the data provided, which of the following scaffolds and/or accommodations would be most appropriate?

  1. teaching alternative strategies for word identification that emphasize whole-word recognition rather than decoding
  2. articulating and repeating the pronunciation of new vocabulary words slowly multiple times
  3. instruction and repeated practice opportunities for new words/syllable types to build orthographic knowledge
  4. using colorful picture books for reading instruction instead of decodable texts

Question 71.

A reading specialist has joined the staff of a middle school that has recently begun implementing a Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS). The principal asks the specialist to review the MTSS Implementation Drivers for the reading program to determine whether an appropriate feedback loop is in place. For this purpose, the specialist will need to obtain information about which of the following factors?

  1. Are teachers using evidence-based instructional practices?
  2. Is reading instruction being implemented with fidelity?
  3. Is the curriculum aligned with state reading standards?
  4. Are teachers engaging in data-based decision making?

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A team of fourth-grade teachers consults with the school reading specialist because a majority of students are not meeting grade-level expectations in reading comprehension with literary texts they read or are read aloud to them. The specialist conducts informal diagnostic assessments by audio recording students' responses to questions during several class discussions of different texts and by having students respond in writing to various questions about texts they have read or were read aloud to them. The specialist's analysis of the results yields the following trend: students were able to answer questions and demonstrate a general understanding of narrative texts about familiar topics (e.g., friendship), but their performance dramatically decreased for narrative texts about less familiar themes and settings.

Question 72.

An analysis of the assessment data suggests that the students would benefit most directly from the teachers systematically supporting students' development in which of the following areas?

  1. distinguishing between different levels of questions
  2. building language comprehension
  3. interpreting anaphoric references in connected text
  4. determining a text's overarching mood

Question 73.

According to the data, which of the following scaffolds for core instruction should the reading specialist recommend the teachers implement to address students' assessed needs?

  1. using a Question-Answer Relationship ( Q A R ) strategy to teach students how to recognize what types of questions they are being asked
  2. teaching students reading comprehension exclusively in small groups rather than in both whole-class and small-group formats
  3. selecting a variety of grade-level texts to build knowledge of relevant vocabulary and narrative structure
  4. providing students with additional wait time to answer text-based questions about narrative texts

Question 74.

Which of the following actions by the reading specialist in response to the data is best aligned with a key component of the Massachusetts Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS)?

  1. providing instruction for students who meet grade-level expectations on the end-of-year summative assessment in reading comprehension
  2. addressing comprehension of narrative texts in grade-level team meetings and professional learning community activities
  3. administering norm-referenced assessments to students to determine if they are eligible for special education services
  4. implementing Tier 3 interventions in reading comprehension with all the students in each second-grade class

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A reading specialist administers a nonsense word assessment to a new student who joined a second-grade class midyear. The student's results on the nonsense word assessment are shown in the two tables below. A check indicates the student pronounced the word correctly. " S C " indicates the student self-corrected their reading error. A dash indicates a slight pause between sounds as the student pronounced a word. If the student substituted a real word or words for the nonsense word, the real word(s) the student pronounced is(are) given.

Short Vowels Long Vowels
Stimulus Student Pronunciation Stimulus Student Pronunciation
lat check  sote  stot   
ped check  fabe faybe
sib check foap  foe, app  
vun check weam  wuh, am  
fim check glay  glag, ghee  
hep  heep, S C   shain  shuh, ann  
yot  yuh, oh, tuh   dright  drig, hut  
rog check hupe  hups   
cax check heest check
Digraphs/Blends Other Vowels
Stimulus Student Pronunciation Stimulus Student Pronunciation
sheg check doit do it
chab check  spowd     spuh, odd  
sost  stoss   clar Carl
whid  wuh, ihnd   foy  foe, yee  
thuzz check jern  juhrhen  
bruck check moof check
cliss  klizz   lurst check
thrist thirst porth check
phum plump stook  stuh, ock  

Question 75.

Which of the following ways would be most appropriate for the reading specialist to analyze these data to facilitate instructional planning for this student?

  1. identifying consonant errors the student makes in the initial and final positions of words
  2. distinguishing between contextual errors the student does and does not correct
  3. comparing the student's knowledge of consonant blends with their knowledge of consonant digraphs
  4. determining syllable types/phonics patterns the student knows and does not know

Question 76.

According to the assessment evidence provided, the student would benefit most from being grouped with other students who need targeted, explicit instruction in reading and spelling which of the following types of words?

  1. single-syllable words with silent e
  2. multisyllabic words with consonant digraphs
  3. multisyllabic words with long-vowel syllables
  4. single-syllable words with short vowels

Question 77.

The reading specialist notes that the student made similar errors when reading the nonsense words sost,  thrihst , sote, clar, and jern. The specialist could best address the student's need indicated by these related reading errors by considering the reciprocal relationship between:

  1. word recognition and spelling.
  2. phonological awareness and word recognition.
  3. phonemic awareness and decoding.
  4. rapid letter-naming speed and decoding.

Question 78.

An elementary school reading specialist is leading a team of stakeholders who are evaluating various literacy curriculum materials for potential adoption for core instruction. The specialist reviews the phonics components for beginning readers. Which of the following materials should the specialist recommend be eliminated from consideration because it emphasizes practices that are not evidence based?

  1. Option 1: "Student texts are predictable leveled texts, which promote students' ability to use context to predict words above their phonics knowledge."
  2. Option 2: "Instruction includes recursive review of phonics skills, including spelling practice."
  3. Option 3: "Irregular high-frequency words are taught by calling attention to both regular and irregular phoneme/grapheme correspondences."
  4. Option 4: "Sound-by-sound blending is taught explicitly and practiced daily using decodable texts."

Question 79.

According to scientific evidence on eye movements and reading, which of the following statements is accurate?

  1. Proficient readers skip, skim, and sample text.
  2. Proficient readers process almost every letter in a text.
  3. Readers can derive meaning from a text without fixing on each word.
  4. Readers can increase the amount of information they process in a single fixation.

Question 80.

A reading specialist uses the Simple View of Reading to provide a theoretical framework for reading instruction practices at the school. Which of the following school practices best aligns with the Simple View of Reading?

  1. implementing targeted instruction sequentially for students by focusing on promoting foundational reading skills in the early grades and text comprehension in later grades
  2. focusing screening measures on foundational reading skills in the early grades and beginning comprehension screenings once students achieve proficiency in word reading
  3. grouping students for differentiated reading instruction according to their assessed word-reading skills and using a whole-class format for teaching reading comprehension
  4. planning interventions for students who need reading support according to the student's specific needs, which may be in decoding, language comprehension, or both

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A middle school reading specialist is reviewing research on possible instructional materials and practices to implement to improve reading comprehension outcomes for students. The specialist considers the following information.

The Institute of Education Sciences ( I E S ) published a review of 20 years of research on the effectiveness of adolescent literacy programs and practices. The identified programs and practices were limited to middle school settings. The review incorporated 33 studies with a rigorous research design from which causal implications could be drawn. However, only 12 studies were identified as having positive effects on reading comprehension, vocabulary, or general literacy. The review identified the following practices associated with positive outcomes: explicit instruction in reading comprehension, explicit vocabulary instruction, consistent instructional routines, cooperative learning, feedback, fluency building, and writing.

Question 81.

Given the information provided about the research studies, which of the following conclusions would be most appropriate for the reading specialist to draw?

  1. The 12 studies with positive outcomes proved cooperative learning significantly increases reading comprehension outcomes.
  2. The research findings cited in the review are generalizable to high school students.
  3. Multiple factors may be involved in improving reading comprehension outcomes for students in middle school.
  4. The findings in the 33 studies have been replicated extensively in other studies.

Question 82.

The reading specialist notes that the studies included in the review met rigorous research design criteria. Which of the following criteria would most likely be part of a rigorous research design?

  1. The student groups compared have significant differences before the study begins.
  2. The overall attrition rate of students participating in the study is low.
  3. Participants are assigned to groups based on the first letter of their last name.
  4. Some confounding factors raise concern about the study's outcomes.

Question 83.

In addition to considering which practices demonstrated potentially positive outcomes, which of the following practical aspects to implementing a new practice should the reading specialist consider?

  1. examining the intensity and duration of the implementation, the personnel requirements, and professional development requirements
  2. determining whether a causal relationship between the practice and subsequent changes in students' performance occurred by chance
  3. comparing the components of each practice to decide which has the most comprehensive approach to literacy instruction
  4. analyzing the common instructional elements across practices to determine the effectiveness of any one element

Question 84.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

A reading specialist provides professional development sessions in phonological terms and concepts to early childhood teachers. The specialist introduces an activity in which teachers practice matching the newly learned terms with example words that demonstrate the concept.

Line Phonology Term Example Word Pair
1 minimal pair  the letters W and R are underlined in the word write the letter R is underlined in the word rite  
2 voiced consonant digraph   the letters t and h are underlined in the words thin and think 
3 syllable onset  the letters T E E are underlined in the word teeth. The letters G R E E are underlined in the word green. 
4 unvoiced consonant digraph  The letters C and H are underlined at the end of the words branch and wrench 

In which of the following lines in the chart is the phonological term accurately matched to a set of example words?

  1. Line 1
  2. Line 2
  3. Line 3
  4. Line 4

Question 85.

Which of the following statements provides the most accurate definition of a phoneme?

  1. fundamental speech sounds shared across multiple spoken languages with common roots
  2. the smallest unit of sound in a language that makes a difference in communication
  3. a unit of sound produced by restricting the vocal tract in a particular manner and place while the larynx is vibrating
  4. any sound that is recognizable in a spoken language as having developed and changed over time and which continues to evolve

Question 86.

Sentences that contain which of the following structures exemplify the grammatical development associated with academic language that is typically mastered last?

  1. dummy subjects (e.g., It is snowing.)
  2. relative pronouns (e.g., This is the boy whose dog is lost.)
  3. irregular plurals (e.g., I have two mice.)
  4. compound predicates (e.g., Frida skipped and hopped.)

Question 87.

A child who has reached the earliest of semantic development milestones would most likely use which of the following sets of words?

  1. the, a, some, many
  2. why, when, because, so
  3. shoe, mouth, apple, dog
  4. must, could, if, then

Question 88.

A prekindergarten teacher consults a reading specialist to address concerns about the grammatical language development of a child in the class. Earlier in the year, the child correctly used common irregular past-tense verb forms (e.g., went, ran, held) but now frequently uses incorrect past-tense verbs for the same words (e.g., wented, ranned, helded). Which of the following explanations would be most appropriate for the specialist to provide?

  1. The child may require speech intervention to recognize grammatical errors.
  2. The child exhibits early signs of a language disability affecting word retrieval.
  3. The child would benefit from explicit, systematic instruction in irregular verbs.
  4. The child is overgeneralizing the morphological rule for marking past tense.

Question 89.

Use the information below to answer the question that follows.

As part of an informal assessment of a first-grade student, a reading specialist reads aloud a short narrative text and then discusses the text with the student. A partial transcript from their conversation appears below.

Teacher: Can you tell me what happens in this story?

Student: Yes.

Teacher: Great! Tell me about the story.

Student: It's good!

Teacher: Do you remember what happened in the story?

Student: Uh-huh.

Teacher: Tell me what happens first in the story.

Student: The chicken named Red gets on the roof!

The student's initial responses to the reading specialist's prompts in this part of the conversation most clearly suggest that the student:

  1. is unfamiliar with narrative structure and requires scaffolding to support a retelling.
  2. may have difficulty processing the teacher's spoken language.
  3. is unfamiliar with the discourse rules for this kind of teacher-student exchange.
  4. does not recall specific details from the story.

Question 90.

A reading specialist implements a decoding intervention with a third-grade student based on a multisensory structured language approach. The student makes significant progress in oral reading accuracy during the intervention, and their accuracy scores are now consistently above 95%. However, the student's oral reading fluency (words correct per minute [WCPM]) is still below the 25th percentile. Given the reciprocal relationships between various foundational reading skills, the specialist could best gain insight into why the student has not shown the same progress trajectory in fluency as in decoding accuracy by considering the student's performance scores on a normative assessment in which of the following areas?

  1. phonemic awareness
  2. phonemic decoding
  3. automatic word recognition
  4. oral reading prosody

Question 91.

A reading specialist in a technical high school uses the following strategy with students who require support in comprehending and analyzing complex grade-level texts in their academic courses.

  • The specialist prepares "think sheets" for assigned texts, which include prompts to elicit students' metacognition (e.g., What do I still have questions about?) that appear next to challenging segments of the text.
  • The prompts require the students to reread the segment and provide evidence from the text in their written questions.
  • The students also complete a graphic organizer that aligns with the text's organizational structure (e.g., flowcharts for cause and effect) and supports the students in integrating information from various segments of the text.

This type of approach is likely to enhance the students' reading comprehension of a complex academic text primarily because the various steps:

  1. guide the students through academic reading and writing tasks step-by-step through the use of teacher think-alouds as scaffolds.
  2. prompt the students to think and write about and synthesize the key parts of the text while they are reading, instead of waiting until the end to answer questions.
  3. provide opportunities for the students to reflect on their reading, evaluate the information, and support their opinions about the text.
  4. encourage the students to integrate the information they read in the text with what they already know about the topic to come to a new understanding of the text.

Use the information below to answer the three questions that follow.

A reading specialist is supporting fourth-grade teachers in implementing a new approach to vocabulary development focused on text analysis. Teachers select small sets of high-utility vocabulary words (e.g., causative and oppositional connectives, or transition words; Tier Two adjectives and verbs used to describe characters and their actions) that occur in grade-level academic texts students will be reading during the school year. The teachers introduce a set of words through explicit instruction in the words' meanings and functions.

Throughout the school year, the specialist supports the teachers in developing oral and written activities and assignments in which students can apply the new vocabulary words in the context of text analysis. Two of the activities are described below.

  • Sentence imitation exercises (oral and written): Students imitate sentences from assigned texts that use connectives (e.g., although, however, even though, meanwhile) to develop their own sentence complexity when speaking and writing about the texts.
  • Character analysis (oral and written): Students use character trait vocabulary (e.g., arrogant, unreliable, mischievous, cautious) and evidence from texts to develop and defend their opinions about characters' actions and motivations when speaking and writing about the texts.

Question 92.

This type of approach to teaching vocabulary best demonstrates the reading specialist's understanding of which of the following relationships that contribute to skilled reading?

  1. Comprehension of language and decoding skills are two major constructs that contribute to reading comprehension.
  2. Speaking and writing about texts using rich academic language are essential to reading comprehension.
  3. Concept development and vocabulary development are reciprocal processes that mutually reinforce one another.
  4. Vocabulary knowledge contributes to reading and writing, but not to viewing, speaking, and listening.

Question 93.

Which of the following additional types of activities would be most appropriate for the reading specialist to include to further promote vocabulary development as an integral component of text analysis?

  1. teaching students nuanced word meanings and how to reflect on nuanced meanings when evaluating authors' word choices in an assigned text
  2. asking students to identify examples of compound and complex sentences in an assigned text and in their own writing
  3. having students identify appositives in an assigned text by circling a word or phrase that is set off by commas and immediately follows a challenging word
  4. instructing students to underline the descriptive words used in an assigned text and in their own writing

Question 94.

The reading specialist adapts this vocabulary approach for use in prekindergarten and kindergarten classes by having teachers introduce grade-appropriate character trait words and the use of connectives in the context of discussions about read-alouds. For example, the specialist models for children how to identify evidence from a story (e.g., what a character does or says) as the teacher reads aloud to match characters with specific character trait words. The specialist also models the use of grade-appropriate connectives (e.g., because, yet) to support children's discussions about characters' actions and motivations. Using this vocabulary approach in the early childhood grades is likely to benefit children's future reading comprehension primarily because of:

  1. the importance of teaching narrative text structure to support text comprehension.
  2. the reciprocal relationship between language, speaking, listening, and reading.
  3. the importance of using modeling as a strategy to teach literacy concepts.
  4. the reciprocal relationship between background knowledge and reading comprehension.

Question 95.

A high school reading specialist is working with content-area teachers to help them consistently integrate reading instruction with content-area instruction. The specialist could best employ which of the following approaches to achieve this goal?

  1. modeling for teachers strategies that support close reading of informational texts
  2. observing teachers' lessons and then rating them based on their performance
  3. providing teachers with professional journal articles related to their identified needs
  4. leading discussion sessions on subject-specific reading with teachers in the district

Question 96.

At the beginning of the school year, a second-grade teacher approaches the reading specialist with concerns about a student who is new to the school. The student meets benchmarks for reading grade-level single-syllable words with short and long vowels but does not yet consistently decode two-syllable words that follow basic patterns. The specialist can best respond by taking which of the following actions?

  1. suggesting that the teacher try multiple instructional methods targeting a variety of learning styles and note the student's preference for future planning
  2. providing the teacher with supplemental materials to enhance classroom instruction and allow for at-home practice of syllable-division skills
  3. offering to guide the teacher in planning instruction to promote the student's development in recognizing and identifying syllable types
  4. implementing diagnostic testing to determine if the student has learning disabilities that may be responsible for the challenges described by the teacher

Question 97.

A reading specialist can best support classroom teachers in staying current with evidence-based approaches to reading instruction by taking which of the following actions?

  1. inviting teachers from other school districts to host informational sessions in which they share the strategies that they find most effective
  2. providing in-class modeling of key components of research-based instruction as professional learning for teachers in their classrooms
  3. supervising teachers in the school to ensure that they are implementing only the most current approaches to instruction
  4. sharing subscriptions and memberships to national literacy organizations with interested teachers

Question 98.

A reading specialist helps oversee the implementation of new, school-wide, evidence-based literacy curriculum materials. Which of the following steps should the specialist take for teachers to successfully implement the new materials?

  1. providing teachers with professional development to build the requisite knowledge and skills needed to implement the materials effectively
  2. creating seminars for families and stakeholders to inform them of the instructional components and goals of the materials
  3. assigning mentoring partnerships in which teachers who have experience with similar materials guide less-experienced teachers
  4. working with individual teachers to design supplemental materials that can be shared across grade levels and content areas

Question 99.

An elementary school reading specialist, a team of teachers, and administrators are beginning the process of selecting core instructional materials that align with state English language arts standards and include appropriate grade-level content topics. Which of the following questions should they ask first as they evaluate each option?

  1. Do the materials reflect the school's prevailing philosophy about reading instruction and development?
  2. Are the materials centered around high-interest topics, and do they include illustrations that appeal to reluctant readers?
  3. Do the materials include extension activities and supplemental materials for all learners?
  4. Are the materials evidence-based, and do they include both literary and informational texts?

Question 100.

When evaluating and selecting instructional materials for reading interventions in an elementary school, the reading specialist should prioritize materials that:

  1. use technology to provide students with both instruction and review.
  2. use evidence-based strategies to support differentiated instruction.
  3. include multiple workbooks for readers at all reading levels.
  4. were developed using a collection of texts on high-interest topics.

Open-Response Items

The directions shown below represent what you will see on the actual test. For the purposes of this practice test, you will be able to type your written responses in the boxes provided on the answer key.

This section of the test consists of two open-response item assignments. You will be asked to prepare a written response of approximately 150–300 words for each assignment. You should use your time to plan, write, review, and edit your response for each assignment. You must write responses to both of the assignments.

For each assignment, read the topic and directions carefully before you begin to work. Think about how you will organize your response.

As a whole, your response to each assignment must demonstrate an understanding of the knowledge of the field. In your response to each assignment, you are expected to demonstrate the depth of your understanding of the subject area by applying your knowledge rather than by merely reciting factual information.

Your response to each assignment will be evaluated based on the following criteria.

  • Purpose: the extent to which the response achieves the purpose of the assignment
  • Subject Knowledge: appropriateness and accuracy in the application of subject knowledge
  • Support: quality and relevance of supporting evidence
  • Rationale: soundness of argument and degree of understanding of the subject area

The open-response item assignments are intended to assess subject knowledge. Your responses must be communicated clearly enough to permit valid judgment of the evaluation criteria by scorers. Your responses should be written for an audience of educators in this field. The final version of each response should conform to the conventions of edited American English. Your responses should be your original work, written in your own words, and not copied or paraphrased from some other work.

Be sure to write about the assigned topics. You may not use any reference materials during the test. Remember to review your work and make any changes you think will improve your responses.

Question 101.

Use the information provided in the exhibits to complete the assignment that follows.

A reading specialist is assessing the reading performance of a second-grade student using the results from two different assessments: (1) a record of the student's performance reading aloud a passage from a grade-appropriate text; and (2) a record of the student's performance reading aloud from a grade-appropriate word list.

Given the assessment results provided in the exhibits and your knowledge of foundational reading skills (e.g., phonemic awareness skills, phonics skills, recognition of high-frequency words, syllabication skills, morphemic analysis skills, automaticity, reading fluency [including use of context for confirmation or self-correction]), write a response of approximately 150–300 words in which you:

  • identify one significant strength the student demonstrates in the area of foundational reading skills, citing specific evidence to support your conclusion;
  • identify two significant needs the student demonstrates in the area of foundational reading skills, citing specific evidence to support your conclusion;
  • describe one evidence-based instructional strategy to address one or both of the student's identified needs in the areas of foundational reading skills you have identified; and
  • explain why the evidence-based instructional strategy you selected is likely to be effective in building on and improving the student's foundational reading skills.

Be sure to cite specific evidence from the information provided to support all parts of your written response.

Exhibit: Passage-Reading Assessment

Nico was one of the first kids on the playground.

The teacher wrote P-L-A-G-R with a macron above the I over the word playground.

He took a quick look around near the swings, but he didn’t see Hannah or Marcus.

The teacher circled the word quick to indicate a deletion. The teacher wrote S-W-in over the word swings, Hann with a self-correction symbol over the name Hannah, and M-R over the name Marcus.

Their class must not be out yet.

The teacher wrote C-L-A over the word class, and M-S over the word must.

Oh, it wasn’t easy to wait.

The teacher did not mark this sentence.

Nico was very excited.

The teacher wrote E-X-it with a breve over the E above the word exit.

He was fairly bursting with news!

The teacher wrote fair over the word fairly, B-R-S-T-G over the word bursting, and noss with a self-correction mark over the word news.

He walked back to the side of the school where he expected his friends would appear.

The teacher wrote W-walked over the word walked, B-C over the word back, E-X-P-T with a breve above the E over the word expected, and A-appear over the word appear. There is a mark indicating that the phrase, he walked back to school, was repeated without self-correction.

Suddenly, the heavy green door swung open.

The teacher wrote S-U-D-N-L over the word suddenly, H-V over the word heavy, G-R-E with a macron above the E over the word green, and S-W-G over the word swung.

Kids walking in a line quickly fanned out in all directions past the door.

The teacher wrote walk over the word walking, Q-ick-L over the word quickly, a mark indicating a short pause before the word fanned, and D-ER-E-C-T with a breve above the E over the word directions.

There were happy shouts and lots of running.

The teacher wrote a mark indicating a short pause before the word happy, and S-H-OW over the word shouts.

And then there were Hannah and Marcus, near the end of the line.

The teacher wrote a mark indicating that the phrase, near the end of the line, was repeated.

When Nico spotted them, he joined in the shouting.

The teacher wrote S-P-O-D with a breve above the E over the word spotted, a mark indicating a short pause before the word joined, and S-H-OW over the word shouting.

Hannah, Marcus, guess what!” he called out.

The teacher wrote G-Guess over the word guess, and a mark indicating that the word loud was inserted after the word out.

You are looking at the winner of this year’s cartoon contest.

The teacher wrote W-INN over the word win, C-OON over the word cartoon, and then a mark indicating a long pause before the word contest. The teacher wrote C-ON-S over the word contest.

I won first prize!

The teacher did not mark this sentence.

Exhibit: Word-Reading Assessment

Printed Word Student's Oral Response
sorely ?
gain check
braver   Buh ruh ave 
shifted   sssuh hiff 
crowded   kuh ruh ow duh 
fake check
troops troop
cute check
could check
washing   was hin 


check = immediate recognition

+ = pause, then recognition

? = no recognition

printed word = substitution

Question 102.

Use the information provided in the exhibits to complete the assignment that follows.

Given the assessment results provided in the exhibits and your knowledge of reading comprehension (e.g., vocabulary knowledge; knowledge of academic language structures, including conventions of standard English grammar and usage; application of literal, inferential, or evaluative comprehension skills; use of comprehension strategies; application of text analysis skills to a literary or informational text, including determining key ideas and details, analyzing craft and structure, or integrating knowledge and ideas within a text or across texts), write a response of approximately 150–300 words in which you:

  • identify one significant strength the student demonstrates in the area of reading comprehension, citing specific evidence to support your conclusion;
  • identify two significant needs the student demonstrates in the area of reading comprehension, citing specific evidence to support your conclusion;
  • describe one evidence-based instructional strategy to address the student's identified need in the area of reading comprehension you have identified; and
  • explain why the evidence-based instructional strategy you selected is likely to be effective in building on and improving the student's reading comprehension.

Be sure to cite specific evidence from the passage, the student's response, and the conversation transcript to support all parts of your written response.

Exhibit: Passage and Student Summary

A reading specialist is assessing the reading performance of an eleventh-grade student. The specialist plans to use summarization and text-based and inferential questioning to assess the student's reading comprehension. The specialist begins by having the student read aloud the passage below from Walden by Henry David Thoreau. The student reads the passage accurately and fluently.

What shall I learn of beans or beans of me? I cherish them, I hoe them, early and late I have an eye to them; and this is my day's work. It is a fine broad leaf to look on. My auxiliaries are the dews and rains which water this dry soil, and what fertility is in the soil itself, which for the most part is lean and effete. My enemies are worms, cool days, and most of all woodchucks. The last have nibbled for me a quarter of an acre clean. But what right had I to oust johnswort and the rest, and break up their ancient herb gardens? Soon, however, the remaining beans will be too tough for them, and go forward to meet new foes.

When I was four years old, as I well remember, I was brought from Boston to this my native town, through these very woods and this field, to the pond. It is one of the oldest scenes stamped on my memory. And now to-night my flute has waked the echoes over that very water. The pines still stand here older than I; or, if some have fallen, I have cooked my supper with their stumps, and a new growth is rising all around, preparing another aspect for new infant eyes. Almost the same johnswort springs from the same perennial root in this pasture, and even I have at length helped to clothe that fabulous landscape of my infant dreams, and one of the results of my presence and influence is seen in these bean leaves, corn blades, and potato vines.

After the student finishes reading the passage, the specialist says, "Summarize for me what the passage is about." Shown below is a transcript of the student's oral response.

The author likes beans. He has always liked beans since he was four. He lives in the woods now I think. He grows the beans there, but worms and woodchucks eat them. The cold days aren't good for them either. But he feels bad about the woodchucks because something happened with johnswort. And he plays the flute by the water in the woods and cooks with pine stumps.

Exhibit: Conversation Transcript

Following the student's oral summarization of the passage, the reading specialist asks the student some questions about what the student has read. A transcript of their conversation is shown below.

Reading Specialist: What are some things that the author learns from beans?

Student: He learns about growing beans and vegetables and having a garden.

Reading Specialist: What do you think "auxiliaries" means in the sentence, "My auxiliaries are the dews and rains which water this dry soil"?

Student: Maybe it means an enemy? He says the worms are his enemies.

Reading Specialist: He says that the auxiliaries, the dew and rains, water the dry soil. Could those clues help you determine the meaning of the word?

Student: Oh! The soil is dry, and then it gets watered. So, maybe "auxiliaries" means helpers?

Reading Specialist: The author says, "I have at length helped to clothe that fabulous landscape of my infant dreams." What do you think he means?

Student: I'm not sure. He talks about a baby being there when he cooks his supper, too. I don't know why he put clothes on the landscape. It's pretty confusing.

Reading Specialist: What new foes, or enemies, do you think the beans will meet when they become tough?

Student: Probably different types of weather, like snow, or animals that are like woodchucks.

Reading Specialist: What do you think the author means by "a new growth is rising all around, preparing another aspect for new infant eyes"?

Student: Maybe that next year he'll grow more beans for the baby to see?