Test Information Guide

Field 54: English as a Second Language
Sample Multiple-Choice Questions

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Foundations of Second-Language Instruction

Objective 0001
Apply knowledge of basic linguistic and sociolinguistic concepts related to instruction for English language learners.

1. In which of the following situations is the student most clearly demonstrating pragmatic competence in his or her response?

  1. A teacher asks a student what her favorite song is, and the student answers, "Yankee Doodle."
  2. A teacher asks a student, "Is your homework assignment wet?" and the student answers, "I forgot my umbrella."
  3. A teacher asks a student, "Do you need an eraser?" and the student answers, "Affirmative."
  4. A teacher asks a student for a synonym for "pretty" and the student answers, "beautiful."
Correct Response: B.

Correct Response: B.

Objective 0002
Apply knowledge of processes and stages of language acquisition.

2. A kindergarten ESL teacher who works with English language learners at a range of English proficiency levels is teaching a lesson on everyday vocabulary. Students will be practicing language related to daily activities such as eating breakfast, going to school, and getting ready for bed. During this lesson, which of the following activities would be most reasonable to expect entering-level English language learners to be able to complete with teacher scaffolding?

  1. Students write simple sentences describing their daily activities.
  2. Students discuss their daily activities with a partner and identify five activities they have in common.
  3. Students match target vocabulary words with corresponding pictures.
  4. Students complete a fill-in-the-blank exercise with target vocabulary and then write a story using the words.
Correct Response: C.

Correct Response: C.

Objective 0003
Evaluate and apply knowledge of ESL instructional approaches and best practices for promoting English language learners' English language development.

3. The list below describes the main features of an instructional method for second-language development.

These features best characterize which of the following methods?

  1. communicative approach
  2. Language Experience Approach (LEA)
  3. grammar-translation approach
  4. Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
Correct Response: D.

Correct Response: D.

Objective 0004
Apply knowledge of factors, including socio-emotional and sociocultural considerations, that influence the teaching and learning of English language learners.

4. In the early stages of second-language development, which of the following teacher practices is most likely to lower English language learners' affective filters, thereby lowering their inhibitions about using English?

  1. emphasizing fluency over accuracy
  2. using concurrent translation throughout lessons
  3. providing corrective feedback to improve students' pronunciation
  4. organizing instruction based on a systematic, sequential introduction of grammatical structures
Correct Response: A.

Correct Response: A.

5. Which of the following aspects of communication is likely to be most influenced by cultural factors?

  1. whether a speaker uses correct pronunciation
  2. how a speaker uses intonation to emphasize a word or phrase
  3. the manner in which a speaker marks past, present, and future time
  4. the amount of eye contact a speaker maintains during a conversation
Correct Response: D.

Correct Response: D.

Second-Language and Content Learning

Objective 0005
Apply knowledge of aural and oral language instruction and assessment for English language learners.

6. An elementary school ESL teacher regularly engages English language learners in choral readings. The teacher reads a brief age- and level-appropriate poem or book aloud and then has students read the text aloud several times together as a group. In addition to developing the students' reading skills, this approach supports development of their oral language skills primarily in which of the following areas?

  1. English intonation and vocabulary
  2. conversational fluency and pragmatic competence
  3. English syntax and semantics
  4. listening comprehension and strategic competence
Correct Response: A.

Correct Response: A.

Objective 0006
Apply knowledge of theory, research, and practice related to developing reading skills and reading comprehension in English as a first language.

7. The development of which of the following skills is prerequisite for understanding the alphabetic principle?

  1. syllabication and morphological skills
  2. decoding and sight word recognition
  3. phonemic awareness and letter recognition
  4. letter naming and print tracking
Correct Response: C.

Correct Response: C.

Objective 0007
Apply knowledge of reading instruction and assessment for English language learners.

8. A new developing-level English language learner joins an ESL class. The ESL teacher administers an assessment of oral language skills, which indicates that the student has well-developed oral vocabulary knowledge in English and a good command of English syntactic structures. In an informal reading assessment, however, the student could not read most words that were in her oral vocabulary. The teacher noticed that the student relied heavily on pictures and other context cues to construct meaning from the texts. The results of these assessments suggest that the student would benefit most from reading instruction that:

  1. promotes her knowledge of and skills in applying a wide range of comprehension strategies.
  2. helps her learn how to identify different types of texts and how to adjust her reading strategies and rate to match the text she is reading.
  3. teaches her how to set a purpose for her reading before she begins to read a new text.
  4. develops her understanding of the alphabetic principle and her knowledge of and skills in applying basic English phonics rules.
Correct Response: D.

Correct Response: D.

Objective 0008
Apply knowledge of writing instruction and assessment for English language learners.

9. An ESL teacher encourages bridging-level English language learners to use a dictionary that includes example sentences for each word. This approach can be especially beneficial in developing the writing proficiency of English language learners primarily because it helps them:

  1. ensure that their sentences use proper syntactic structures.
  2. understand the figurative connotations of their word choices.
  3. make word choices that are idiomatic and flow naturally.
  4. be more precise in their use of descriptive and persuasive phrasing.
Correct Response: C.

Correct Response: C.

Objective 0009
Apply knowledge of instruction and assessment related to the development of English language learners' social and academic language proficiency and content-area learning.

10. An ESL teacher regularly uses graphic organizers to scaffold English language learners' access to textbook content. The primary rationale for this practice is that graphic organizers:

  1. reduce the amount of content that students need to master.
  2. clarify relationships among content-area concepts for students.
  3. provide students with concrete illustrations of content-area topics.
  4. address the learning needs of students with visual-spatial learning styles.
Correct Response: B.

Correct Response: B.