#### Calculation of Recommended Performance Levels

For the multiple-choice section the panel-based recommended performance level was calculated as follows:

- Find the median value of all panelists' ratings for each scorable multiple-choice item on the test form.
- Sum the median values for all scorable items on a form and divide by 100. The results were rounded to the nearest integer to provide a panel-based, multiple-choice section performance level.

For the open-response section the recommended performance level was calculated as follows:

- Find the median value of all panelists' Round II ratings for the open-response section.
- Round to the nearest integer to obtain a score point value on the scale 2 through 8, 2 through 16, or 2 through 40, depending on the scale for the field.

The item median was computed using the following formula.

- The following formula was used:
- where
*L*_{M} is the lower limit of the category that contains the middle score, *w* is the width of the category that contains the middle score, *n* is the total number of scores, *cumf* is the total number of scores that fall below the score category that contains the middle score, and *f*_{M} is the number of scores in the score category that contains the middle score.
- For open-response items, the input to the formula are the ratings (e.g., 2, 3, 4...16) given by the raters for the set of open-response items.
- For multiple-choice items, the input to the formula are the ratings (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10) given by the raters for the multiple-choice item. The median is calculated for each item using the formula above, rounded to one decimal place, and then translated to the 0–100 scale using the following transformation formula:
*Md Tran* = 10*Md* − 5
- For example, an item with a median rating of 7.2 would have a transformed median of 67 on the 0–100 scale.